Roots and mineral nutrition

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exam one part 4

roots

anchor plant in soil or other medium

roots store

surplus sugars produced in photosynthesis which are transfered to the roots through phloem

taproot system

has one main root

lateral roots

extend on the sides of taproots (the main root)

fibrour root system

has many roots of similar size

ground tissues are

cortex and pith

vascular tissues are

xylem and phloem

epidermis

protects the root

root hairs

help absorb water and dissolved minerals

cirtex

majority of ground tissue with roots parenchyma cells, often store starch

Casparian strip

waterproofing strip composed of fat imper,eable to water and dissolved minerals

minerals are actively transported

through camer proteins in plasma membranes

water enters by osmosis

through aquaporins

pericycle

gives rise to lateral roots, lateral meristems

xylem

conducts water and dissolved minerals

phloem

conducts dissolved sugar

herbaceous eudicot root

xylem forms solid core in center of root

monocot root

center of pith surrounded by ring of alternating xylem and phloem bundles no vascular cambium or secondary growth

apoplast

along interconnected porous cell walls

symplast

from one cells cytoplasm to the next through plasmodesmata

gymnosperms and woody eudicots roots develope

secondary tissues (wood, bark)

result of activity of two lateral meristems

vascular cambium, cork cambium

Vascular cambium

produces secondary xylem (wood) and secondayry phoelm (inner bark)

cork cammbium

produces periderm (outer bark)

prop roots

develop from branches or vertical stem

arial "breathing roots"

help get oxygen to submerged roots

house rhizobia

nitrogen fixing bacteria

mycorrhizae

subterranean associations between roots and fungi mutuarly benificial

parent material

is broken into smaller and smaller particles by weathering processes

climate and organisms

work together in waethering rock

organisms in soil

plants algae fungi worms insects spiders bacteria

inorganic minerals

provide anchorage, essential minerals for plants

organic matter

increases soils water holding capacity releases essential minerals into soil as it decomposes

macro nutrialnts

carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen potassium calcium magnesium sulfer silicon

micronutrients

chlorine iron sodium zinc copper nickel

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