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ventral

stomach

dorsal

back

anterior

top

posterior

bottom

urogenital opening

where the penis comes out

scrotum

external sack that houses the testes

genital papilla

this is the females' external genitalia located directly below the anus

umbilical

feeds the embryo nutrients

mammary papillae

nipples

anus

where waste products are disposed out of

mouth

the first part of chordate digestion

epiglottis/glottis

flap/opening

larynx

structure in the throat that contains the vocal cords

trachea

goes to the lungs

bronchi

2 branches of the trachea

bronchioles

attach to the alveoli

lungs

respitory organ; place where gasws are exchanged between the blood and inhaled air

alveoli

sacks at the end of the bronchioles

diaphram

used in respiration

tongue

used to push food to the hard palllete which puches it to be swallowed

saliva

digests carbohydrates

hard pallete

top of the mouth

soft pallete

helps keep food out of the nasal cavity

esophagus

tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

stomach

goes to the stomach

chime

Food when it is in the small intestine

liver (and gall bladder)

main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the bod and detoxicates it. It's main function is to collect and concentrate the bile that the body uses to digest fats

bile

2 purposes; emulsify fat and nuetralize acids when entering the duodenum

spleen

removes old red blood cells

pancreas

produces important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods

bicarbonate

neutralise or counteract acids

duodenum

where most chemical digestion takes place

small intestine

absorbs digests

villi and microvilli

folds in the small intestine

larg intestine

absorbs water

rectum

stores solid waste until it is released from the body

peristalsis

contractions of smooth muscles that provide the force that moves food through the esophagus toward the stomach

enzymes

protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions

carbohydrates -->

sugars

proteins -->

amino acids

fats -->

carbon chains

HCI Acid (hydrochloric acid)

a strong acid that helps to break down food

Mesenteries

tissue layer that holds the intestines together

renal artery

carries blood from aorta to kidney

renal vein

blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart

kidneys

an organ of excretion that seperates wastes and excess water from the blood

ureters

tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

urinary bladder

saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted

urethra

tube through which urine leaves the body

heart

hollow muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

superior vena cava

Carries blood from upper regions of the body to right atrium

inferior vene cava

vein collects blood from the lower portion of the body and carries it to the heart.

aorta

artery that carries blood directly from the heart to the rest of the body

pulmonary artery

carries deoxygentated blood from the heart to the lungs

pulmonary vein

any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

right atrium

The upper right chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is received from the vena cava and then sent to the right ventricle.

left atrium

the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins

right ventricle

the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk

left ventricle

the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta

tricuspid valve

valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle

bicuspid valve (mitral valve)

between left atrium and ventricle

chordate tendonae

string attach the valve pull the valve open

semiluner valves

permits blood to be forced into the arteries prevents backflow of blood from arteries to ventricles

coronary artery

the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart

arteries

large blood vessel that carries blodd away from the heart to the tissues of the body

veins

blood vessel that carries blood from the body back to the heart

capillaries

smallest blood vessel; bring nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and wast produsts

lymph nodes

organs that filter lymph and play an important role in the body's defense

lymph

fluid that is filtered out of the blood

4 characteristics of a chordate

dorsal hollow nerv cord
notochord
pharyngeal pouches
post-anal tail

3 subphyla

urochordata
tunicata
vertebrata

6 classes of vertebrates

bony fish
cartilagenous fish
amphibians
reptiles
birds
mammals

evolutionary cladogram

a diagram showing evolution with a lines coming out of main line from a common ancestor

convergent evolution

process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similiar enviroments

endotherm

warm blooded

ectotherm

cold blooded

amniotic egg

gave egg a shell

lung fish

has gill and lungs and can breathe through its skin

coelacanth

has lobbed fins (almost like arms)

mud skipper

has gills and lungs and brethes through its skin

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