"A Blank Check"
A promise of support from Germany to Austria-Hungary after Ferdinand's assassination; Austria-Hungary sought reprisals against Serbia.
Battle of the Marne
(September 3, 1914) The Belgian army made a surprising stand along with British reinforcements in Belgium complicating the German plan of a quick sweep through Belgium. Also the troops along France's border failed to fall back and draw the French into Germany where they could be annihilated. As the Germans 1.5 million troops pushed towards Paris, the French 1million men supported by English reinforcements moved toward the invaders, meeting at the Marne river outside of Paris. The French army made a surprisingly heroic stand, under the leadership of General Joseph Joffre. France was miraculously saved.
Battle of the Masurian Lakes
An engagement on September 9-14, 1914, in which two German armies under the command of General Paul von Hindenburg defeated Russia's First Army under General Paul von Rennenkampf. Russia suffered 125,000 casualties.
Battle of the Somme
July - December 1916. Attempted spearhead battle on the western front initiated by the Allies (General Haig) against Germany high position trenches. More than a million killed
Battle of Verdun
Battle fought between French and German armies from February to December 1916; more than 700,000 people died - one of the most costly battles of the WWI.
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
a Balkan country, once part of Yugoslavia; Territories in the Ottoman Empire annexed by the Austrians in 1908; done so that territories would not be taken by the Serbian state; contained ethnic Serbs
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919. Pushed for heavy reparations from Germans. Wanted to make Germans suffer and help break Germany up.
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria
(1863-1914) Heir apparent to the Austro-Hungarian throne whose assassination in Sarajevo set in motion the events that started World War I.
Series of proposals in which U.S. President Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the fourteen points.
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
A war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Unredeemed Italy. Trentino, Trieste, Istria (& after Villafranca, Nice and Savoy). These were territories in which Italians were most numerous/preponderant but were not under Italian control.
Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.
Leader of Provincial Government installed in Russia following the March 1917 Revolution; overthrown by Bolsheviks
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Founder of the Russian Communist Party, this man led the November Revolution in 1917 which established a revolutionary soviet government based on a union of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
A territory surrendered by Turkey or Germany after World War I and put under the tutelage of some other European power until they are able to stand by themselves.
Nicholas II of Russia
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for Italy to acquire Dalmatia accounting to the secret Treaty of London
He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Russian Provisional Government
Mar 1917 - The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the tsar's abdication. When the authority of the Tsar's government began disintegrating in the February Revolution of 1917, two rival institutions, the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, competed for power. When Tsar Nicholas II abdicated on March 15 and his brother, Grand Duke Michael refused the throne the next day. According to the will of the Grand Duke, the provisional government should rule until the Constituent Assembly determines the form of government in Russia. Provisional government should provide elections to the Assembly. Its power was effectively limited by the Petrograd Soviet's growing authority. The Soviet controlled the army, factories and railways and had the support of the workers, so this was a period of dual authority, although at first the Soviet had given support to the Provisional Government.
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Councils composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers
Used during World War I mainly between German U-Boats and Atlantic supply convoys for Great Britain
What brought US into war; Germany began to use subs to sink British merchant ships; sinks civilian passenger line; promises to stop using subs but eventually starts to use again
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
Treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war (1918).
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI.
1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce.
2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion)
3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI
4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
Russian revolutionary intellectual and close adviser to Lenin. A leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917), he was later expelled from the Communist Party (1927) and banished (1929) for his opposition to the authoritarianism of Stalin
War Guilt Clause
A provision in the treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI.
1.) formally blamed Germany 2.) charged Germany for $33 billion
A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.