ch 3 and 4 developmental psychology

88 terms by emaadams1111 

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chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

genes

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

mutation

change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

behavior genetics

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

molecular genetics

the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes

memes

self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person

x chromosome

the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child

y chromosome

the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.

role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

gender role

the set of behaviors that society considers appropriate for each sex

gender identity

one's sense of being male or female

gender schema theory

the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

gender - typing

the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

social learning theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

zygote

fertilized egg, conception to 2 weeks. attaches to uterine wall after 10 days

embryo

inner part of uterine wall after 2 weeks to to months, during this period organs begin to form, heart begins to beat, liver begins to make red blood cells

teratogens

chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus through the placental screen

fetus

9 weeks to birth, looking more like a human, organs are developed enough that premature babies have a good chance outside the womb

fetal alcohol syndrome

marked by a small misproportioned head lifelong abnormalities, leading cause of mental retardation

rooting reflex

tendency to open mouth and search for nipple when touched on the cheek

preferences

human voices and faces smell and sound of mother

maturation

the biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience lack of complex neural pathways helps explain infantile amnesia

motor development

the development of the brain area allows for increased physical coordination, most babies roll over before they sit up, crawl before they walk

habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation

piaget

who was the key researcher on cognitive development?

paiget

he worked for the french government developming questions for binets intelligence test, noticed when children answered incorrectly they often gave very similar incorrect answers which led to his belief that there are stages

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

assimilation

process by which new information is placed into existing categories

accommodation

a change brought about because of new information

sensorimotor preoperational formal operational concrete operational

list all of paigets stages

baby mathematics

shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer

sensorimotor

the stage that is characterized by learning to coordinate sensation and perception with motor activity, infants begin to realize that their physical movements and the results they sense and perceive are related, before the age of 6 months. 0-2

object permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived (in senso stage)

preoperational

the stage that starts when children start to use words and symbols to represent objects

law of conservation

key properties of substances such as weight volume and # stay the same even if their shape is changed (not understood by children in preop stage)

egocentric

the inability to see another persons point of view (in preop stage)

animistic

children during preop stage. they think objects are alive or have humal qualities

artificialistic

during preop. they think natural occuring events are caused by humans

formal operational

the stage that reasoning expands from concrete to abstract, realize that ideas can be classified mentally just as objects can, algebra and geometry can be understood, capable of dealing with hypothetical situations, understand there may be more than 1 solution to a problem, (12-adult)

theory of mind

begin to form this in preop. ideas about their own and others mental states about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

concrete operational stage

begin to show early signs of adult thinking, but only when thinking about objects, not abstract ideas. able to focus on 2 dimensions of a problem at a time. therefore, understand law of conservation. learn to see the world from others perspective

stranger anxiety

fearof strangers that infants display beginning at about 8 months, by this age have schema for familiar faces, unfamiliar upset child

attachment

major issua in a childhood social development, an emotional tie with another person

secure attachment

an attachment where a child plays comfortably, happily explore their environment in their mothers presence, get distressed when mother leaves them, run to her when she return

insecure attachment

an attachment where child is less likely to explore environment, very clingy, when mother leaves they cry loudly and remain upset to seem indifferent to their mother going and returning

contact comfort

our need to touch and be touched by something soft and warm true source of attachment

ainsworth

who did the strange situation?

critical period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development

imprinting

process by which certain animals from immediate attachments during a critical period early in life

secure

1 of ainsworths 3 attachment styles: plays and explores with moth pres, upset when she leaves quickly calmed by her return. sensitive and responsive mothers

anxious ambivalent

anxious when mom is near, extreme protest when she leaves but are not really comforted when she returns.

avoidant attachment

seek little contact with mom and is no distressed when she leaves

basic trust

a sense that the world is predictable and reliable

self concept

a sense of ones identity and personal worth, develops by age 12, view of themselves affect their actions

authoritarian

parents impose rules and expect obedience "dont interrupt" Because i said so

permissive

submit to childrens desires, make few damands us little punishment

authoritative

both demanding and responsive, set - enforce and explain rules so child understands the reasoning behind them, encourages open discussion

adolescence

the transition period from childhood to adulthood extending from puberty to independence

puberty

the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction

primary sex characteristics

body structure that make sexual reproduction happen, ovaries, testes, external glands

secondary sex characteristics

non-reproductive, breasts and hips, deep voice, body hair

menarche

first menstrual period

metacognition

thinking about thinking

postconventional

level of kohlbergs moral ladder, morality of abstract principles to affirm agreed upon rights and personal ethical principles (up to 9)

conventional

level of kohlbergs moral ladder: morality of law and social rules to gain approval or avoid disapproval (adulthood)

preconventional

level of kohlbergs moral ladder: morality of self interest to avoid punishment or gain concrete reward

stage 1

STAGE of kohlbergs moral: avoid punishment

stage 2

STAGE of kohlbergs moral: gain reward

stage 3

STAGE of kohlbergs moral good boy/ girl orientation, maintain roles to fulfill social roles (golden rule)

stage 4

STAGE of kohlbergs moral: social contract orientation, society must transcend individual needs- uphold law and rules to maintain a functioning society

stage 5

STAGE of kohlbergs moral : human individual rights so moral reasoning is based on saving individual human rights - right to live

stage 6

STAGE of kohlbergs moral : looking at individuals but knowing unique situations that one can not make judgements about

infancy

erikson stages: trust vs mistrust

toddler

erikson stages: autonomy vs shame and doubt (2nd year)

preschooler

erikson stages: initiative vs. guilt (3-5)

elementary

erikson stages: competence vs. inferiority 6- puberty)

adolescence

erikson stages: identity vs role confusion (teens - 20's_

young adult

erikson stages: intimacy vs. isolation (20's- 40s) .. more with men

middle adult

erikson stages: generatively vs stagnation (40s - 60s)

late adult

erikson stages: integrity vs despair (late 60s -)

identity

issue of adolescence

intimacy

ability to form close loving realtionships

gilligan

believed intimacy v despair applied more to men because they are more individualistic

male answer syndrome

men are likely to guess or make up answers than to admit they dont know

menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation

social clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events

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