What does a patient need to be capable of giving consent validly?
Must be over the age of 18 unless emancipated, and must be considered competent. The proper information must be received to make a decision. The person must act voluntarily when exercising freedom of choice.
What does the informed consent need to contain?
The nature of the procedure, benefits and risks and alternatives to the procedure.
What are important age specific preparation for procedures of an infant?
Involve parent in procedure, have usual caregiver perform or assist procedure, limit number of strangers, use analgesics, keep frightening objects out of view, perform painful procedures in a separate room, use nonintrusive procedures whenever possible.
What are important age specific preparations for procedures of a toddler?
Explain procedures how the child will hear, see, taste, smell and feel. Its okay to yell, cry. Use distraction techniques. Keep frightening objects out of view. Give one direction at a time. Use demonstration doll, but avoid favorite doll. Allow choices whenever possible. Allow child to participate in care when possible. Teaching sessions 5 - 10 minutes.
What are important age specific preparations for procedures of a Preschooler?
Explain procedure in simple terms to how affects child, demonstrate use of equipment, use neutral words, use longer teaching sessions 10 - 15 minutes, clarify each procedure, ask childs thoughts, keep equipment out of sign except when shown to or used. Emphasize that no other body part will be involved. Adhesive bandage over site. Involve child whenever possible and praise. Always state not a form of punishment.
What are important age specific preparations for procedures on a school-age child?
Explain procedures correctly and reason, allow child to manipulate equipment, longer teaching sessions 20 minutes, tell child what is expected, allow responsibility for simple tasks, include child in decision making, provide privacy from peers during procedure.
What are important age specific preparations for procedures on a adolescent?
Give reasons why procedure is necessary, may fear death, encourage questioning, provide privacy, discuss how may affect appearance, involve in decision making and planning, impose few restrictions, suggest methods of maintaining control.
What do parents represent for children with procedures?
Security, safety and comfort.
What should a child know?
That is is alright to cry.
What is malignant hyperthermia?
A potentially fatal genetic myopathy that is triggered by certain anesthetics.
What are signs of malignant hyperthermia?
Hypermetabolism, muscle rigidity, elevated temperature, tachycardia, tachyarrhythmias, tachypnea, hypercarbia, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis.
What is always best to do when feeding the sick child?
Small, frequent meals and nutritious sacks. Favorite foods should be available.
Why might a child refuse to eat?
A way to gain control and power.
What is the most effective intervention for fever?
What is a Fever?
An elevation in set point such that body temperature is regulated at higher lever may be arbitrarily defined as temperature above 38 C (100.4 F).
What is Hyperthermia?
Body temperature exceeding the set point, which usually results from the body or external conditions, creating more heat then the body can eliminate, as in heat stroke, aspirin toxicity, seizures, or hyperthyroidism.
When should the nurse recheck a temperature after giving an antipyretic?
30 minutes after.
What is a sign the body is trying to maintain a set point of heat?
What are ways to traditionally cool a child with a fever?
Wearing minimum clothing, exposing the skin to air, reducing room temperature, increasing air circulation and applying cool, moist compresses to the skin.
What cooling procedures are ineffective for fever?
Sponging or tepid baths.
What are cooling procedures for hyperthermia?
Cool applications, cooling blankets, cool compresses, tepid baths, sponging.
How does the metabolic rate effect temperature?
10% increase for every 1* C.
When should a parent call the office immediately with a child under 2 moths old?
If fever is over 40.6 C/ 105 F.
When should a parent call the office within 24 hours with a child?
If the fever is between 40 - 40.6 C/ 104 - 105 F.
What should you do when identifying a child?
Check identification band.
What is used to collect urine from a infant and toddler who are not toilet trained?
Urine collection bags.
How do you obtains mall amounts of urine?
Use a syringe without a needle to aspirate directly from the diaper; if absorbent diapers with gelling material that trap urine are used, place a small gauze dressing, cotton balls or urine collection device inside diaper to collect urine.
What is important to identify before catheterization?
Patients who are allergic to povidone-iodine or latex.
What is used to decrease discomfort of catheterization?
2% lidocaine lubricant that is placed on the meatus.
What will elicit a swallowing reflex in infants up to 11 months old?
Blowing a small puff of air in the face of the child.
What is the best placement for medication administration with a syringe or dropper with an infant?
Side of the infants tongue.
What is the benefit of oximetry over TCM?
Does not require heating the skin, reduces the risk of burns, eliminates delay period for transducer equilibration and maintains an accurate measurement regardless of patients age.
How often does the site of an electrode need to be changed with a TCM?
q 3 - 4 hours to avoid burning, and be calibrated with every site change.
What do children wear during manual percussion?
A lightweight shirt to protect skin.
What are the preferred sites for IM injections in children?
Vastus lateralis and ventrogluteal.