Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism; led by Boss Tweed
the idea that some forms of bribery were reasonable
1883, enacted civil service reform, said the Civil Service Exam must be taken in order to recieve most government jobs (highest scores got the jobs), banned federal employees from giving campaign money to their party
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
1906 law that gave the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power
Pure Food & Drug Act
1907 law that created the FDA
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. (inspired by The Jungle)
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
Clayton Antitrust Act
Law passed in 1914 to strengthen federal antitrust enforcement by spelling out business activities that were forbidden.
settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial third party (government). TR used this method during his administration, perhaps most notably during the Anthracite Coal Strike
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
The Mann Act
1910 law enacted by Congress through its power to regulate interstate commerce, as a means of addressing the problem of prostitution and immorality
Federal Reserve Act of 1913
1913 law that created "The Fed", which still serves as the nation's central bank, was created by an act of Congress.
Federal Trade Commission
an independent agency of the United States federal government that maintains fair and free competition. estab in 1914
Child Labor Act of 1916
Federal ban on the interstate shipment of goods manufactured by children under the age of 14. The culmination of Progressive efforts since 1904 and of state laws, this was designed to reduce the use of young children in factories for long hours and low pay. It is significant because in 1918 the Supreme Court, continuing its conservative interpretation from the 1880s, in Hammer v. Dagenhart declared the act unconstitutional because it dealt with local labor conditions, not commerce.
the practical philosophy; a new school of thought created by John Dewey
a friend of the court opinion offered by Louis Brandeis, in the Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon (1908), which spoke about inherent differences between men and women in the workplace.
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Lochner v. New York
overturned NY law setting 8 hr maximum working hours for bakery workers- 1905
Coal Strike of 1902
Strike by the United Coal Workers of America, threatening to shut down the winter coal supply. Theodore Roosevelt intervened federally, and resolved the dispute
socialist organization; a former international labor union and radical labor movement in the United States. its members were also known as the Wobblies
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers. TR used his presidency as a "Bully Pulpit" (a good place to speak) to advocate his ideas
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912. TR split from the Republicans when they refused to nominate him again in 1912.
National Association of Colored Women; founded in 1896 to improve living and working conditions for African-American women
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad. He aggressively supported US companies overseas, sometimes with military force.
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
Principles of Scientific Management
also referred to as Taylorism, scientific management sought to reduce waste and inefficiency in production by measuring every movement and regulating every step of the work process
An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution
Historians Mary and Charles Beard said the framers of the Constitution were chiefly motivated by their own economic interests in preserving their wealth and property.
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
William H. Taft
27th US president, took over presidency after theodore Roosevelt, strengthened ICC, trust buster (even more than TR had been)
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Prominent socialist leader (and five time presidential candidate) who founded the American Railroad Union and led the 1894 Pullman Strike. Founded the IWW.
Big Bill Haywood
United States labor leader and militant socialist who was one of the founders of the Industrial Workers of the World (1869-1928)
Robert La Follette
1855-1925. Progressive Wisconsin Senator and Governor. Staunch supporter of the Progressive movement, and vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, WWI, and League of Nations.
Women feminist, argued for suffrage on the basis that women could only best complete their traditional role if they had a voice for the health of the family and education
She organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's. Founded Planned Parenthood and fought the censorship of the Comstock Laws.
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "____ Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling. He later became the first Jewish SC justice.
He was a pragmatic philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
socialist muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
A historian who believed that the ideology presented in the Constitution was a result of the economic needs of the land-owning Founding Fathers (rather than philosophical principles). His ideas fell out of favor in the 1950's, when other historians pointed out problems with his research.
carried the motion picture into the new era with his silent epics (The Birth of a Nation, Intolerance, etc.) which introduced serious plots and elaborate productions to filmmaking. Motion pictures were the first truly mass entertainment medium.
He campaigned for preservation of wildlife. The Birth of the Conservation Movement began in the 1870s because of his efforts.
head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them
democratic reform enacted by some states that allows voters to propose a law directly (rather than waiting for lawmakers to propose a law)
democratic reform enacted by some states that allows voters (instead of the legislators) to vote directly on a proposed law
democratic reform enacted by some states that allows elected officials to have their position revoked. A recalled public official must run again if a recall election is held (which can be done by popular petition)
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
John J. Pershing
Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace.
Kaiser Wilheim II
The ruler of Germany in 1890 who didn't want to share his power. He forced Bismarck to resign.
Underwood Tariff Bill
Congressional measure to provide the a substantial reduction of rates, and the first ever implementation of a graduated income tax on incomes $3000+.
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
Federal Reserve Act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
Federal Trade Commission Act
This law authorized a presidentially-appointed commission to oversee industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the meatpackers. The commissioners were expected to crush monopolies at the source.
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions.
Federal Farm Loan Act
Passed by president Wilson in 1916. Was originally a reform wanted by the Populist party. It gave farmers the chance to get credit at low rates of interest.
Assistance to to federal civil service employees during periods of disability.
In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.
Group of nations, including the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, who opposed the Axis powers.
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
Causes of WWI
Sinking of the Sussex
March, 1916; US breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany
Election of 1916
Wilson vs. Charles Evens Hughes; Wilson won ("He kept us out of war") 277 to 254 electoral College
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German-Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
The Big Four
Wilson (US) Orlando (Italy) Clemenceau (France) Lloyd George (GB)
Wilson's Declaration of War
April 2, 1917
America enters WWI
April 6, 1917; America enters the war W. Wilson says "The world must be made safe for democracy"
Wilson's Fourteen Points
number of provisions which called for an end to entangling alliances, keeping peace after war, removal of trade barriers and reduction of military he was forced to compromise
An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, starting World War I
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
served in the American Revolutionary War both as a general and as a diplomat and was a key figure in the early phases of the French Revolution, serving in the Estates General and the subsequent National Constituent Assembly.
Gibraltar Straight, English Channel, North Sea
President Wilson sent this man with his army to Mexico to Pancho Villa (never captured Villa)
American Expeditionary force
promoted "victory Gardens" and "Wheatless Days"
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
war from inside trenches enemies would try killing eachother with machine guns and tanks, and poison gas
No Man's Land
Territory between rival Trenches, very dangerous
engage somebody to enter the army
one who refuses to serve in the armed forces on grounds of conscience
a collection of merchant ships with an escort of warships