Going through different stages of evolution; primitive, savage, barbarian, and civilizied.
Hunger gatherer, small group, uses the tools they are given, a limited group.
More advanced than savage. Ex: chinese
Arising from emotions.
Arising from reason or logic.
Started in the 1880s. Colonial expansion, extermination and forced migration, used theory of cultural evolution, cultural stereotypes of N.A music
From algonquin language: means "healing ceremony". 19th century - part of war dances for warriors protection. 20th century - various activities: games and trading.
Among the Iroquois, a meetinghouse with a stove at each end of the hall and benches along the sides.
Sounding all the frequencies between two pitches of an interval in sequence, upward or downward, as in the sound produced by a slide-whistle; synonymous with Portamento.
A high voice that comes from the head rather than the chest.
Assigning someone a different name. Used in dyadic (pair) relationships.
A concert takes place before the dancing of an enemyway ceremony. Usually consist entirely of vocables. Sometimes express courtship theme.
Syllables without lexible meaning.
Musical texture. Presence of 2 or more voices or instruments singing/doing same melodic pattern.
Tail (Native American Song)
Repeat of the last phrase.
"Grandfathers of the Gods" Ceremony last nine nights. Musical features; falsetto and vocables.
Depictions of the Gods. Invitations for the Gods to participate. Paintings not produced for public.
Masked dancers impersonate Gods. Ritual purification of a sick person. Sweating, prayer, sand paintings, last 9 days, prayers, the yebechi song, and has ritual specialists officiate.
Used to alleviate sickness from battle. Enemyway takes place over three days. 1. Ritual reenactment of battle. 2. Enemy ghost is ritually killed.
Traditional Ojibwe dwelling.
Traditional powwow food.
Traditional Dances (Men)
Great variety in regalia, uses heel toe method.
Traditional Dances (Women)
More subtle than men, moccasins and shawls expected.
From northern plains people (Cheyenne, Sioux, Lakota). Praire grass used.
Emphasis on catching the eye. Circular bustles on arms and back.
Jingle Dress Dances
Jingles made from curved snuff tins.
Female equivalent of fancy dancers.
Native American Church
A religious movement that began in Mexico in the nineteenth century and spread to the US, particularly the American Southwest. Its music, rituals, and beliefs combine Christian and Native elements.
Clothing worn during powwow, like costume, but NOT costume. Expression of individual, family, and community.
Parade of dancers.
Curved staff with feathers.
Made of a small three legged iron pot with wet buckskin stretched over the top, filled halfway with water. Used in Native American Church.
Africa north of the Sahara Desert.
Ethnic group of Abubakari Lunna.
Kingdom of the Dagbamba people.
The vernacular meaning of a drummed phrase.
A Dagbamba verbal artist, genealogist, counsler to royalty, cultural expert, entertainer; also, the name of the hourglass-shaped tension drum that he plays.
A shift in the rhythmic pulse from a division of two to a division of three, or vice versa (ex: 6/8 to 3/4; using eighth to quarter notes or using ties)
Overlapping parts to create a single musical texture.
Noise, disordered sound, and out-of-balance social condition.
Silence, ordered sound, a harmonious social condition.
One of several ethnic groups known to Europeans as Pygmies or Forest People.
A musical form in which one part seems to be linked as a "response" to the previous part. The response part appears to be an "answer" or "comment" on the first or "call" part.
Encompases many ethnic groups. BaAka in Africa who are influenced by tropical forest in Central Africa.
Title taken by ruler of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Tone, color, or quality.
European term for Mande experts in speech, song, and the playing of instruments; counslers to royalty, entertainers for the public, and guardians of history.
Mande jaliya song. Alternates praises for individuals with proverbal expressions.
A cylindrical, carved drum with a snare on each of its two heads.
Spiked bridge harp.
Short formula used a a memory aid.
Words in native american songs having no meaning and intended only as vocal sounds.
Rhythmic line holding musical parts together. Remembered with mnemonics.
The Ewe Supreme Being.
Music and dance of the Ewe people. Originated as war drumming. Tuned with pegs hammered into side. Agbe=Life, Kor=Clear
A dried gourd with beads.
A performance event.
A section of rhythmically intensified drumming, dancing, and percussive shouts.
Ethnic group that performs Agbekor.
A type of idiophone that uses vibrating "lamelle" or strips of material,usually metal,to produce a sound.
Plucked, tuned idiophone. ("thumb piano")
Literally, "mbira of the ancestors."
Shona ancestral sprits.
The tonal qualities of an mbira' sound.
A pair of gourd rattles that accompany mbira.
Large gourd resonator for mbira.
Name of white-ruled state that was renamed Zimbabwe.
A landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly called Rhodesia. Shona, Ndebele, and Zulus (in south). Shona ethnic group is largest.
Non-Standard, variable aspects of langauge. Learned and performed face-to-face. Conveys both information and style.
A cultural construct.
Vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation.
Tone, volume, speed.
Facial expressions and gestures.
Variety of language that differs in: Vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.
Ways of speaking in a particular group.
Specialized terminology. Used to communicate within a group as a shorthand. Used to distinguish group from outside. Bowling: Crankers vs. Stroker, finding the pocket.
Words to express extreme emotion or condition. Curses, excrement.. Combination of two.
Speaking in tongues.
Used in religious contents.
When person speakers more than one language.
Moving from one language to another in same conversation.
Natural pain killer.
A state of mind in which consciousness is fragile and voluntary action is poor or missing.
A condition, especially an ASC, indigenously interpreted in terms of an alien spirit.
Sufi branch of Islam.
"Rotation", or whirling dance.
Mevlana Celadeddin Rumi
Mevlevi Sufis founder.
Chanting to a state of ecstasy.
Chanting the names of God.
Signal to dance, counterclockwise.