CGS2600 Exam #1 Terms

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Computer Literate

being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities

spam

junk mail

Information Technology (IT)

a field of study focused on managing and processing information and the automatic retrieval of information

data mining

the process of searching huge amounts of data with the hope of finding a pattern

bluetooth technology

a type of wireless transmission standard that facilitates the connection of electronic computer devices to peripheral devices

offshore

to send to other countries

computer forensics

this specialty analyzes computer systems with specific techniques to gather potential legal evidence

digital home

means having an appropriate computer and digital devices that are all connected to a home network

radio frequency identification tags (RFID tags)

a tiny tag with a microchip that is used to keep track cows of cows

patient simulator

life-sized, computer controlled mannequins that can speak, breathe, and blink

public domain

not covered by copyright

nanoscience

involves the study of molecules and structures that range in size from 1 to 100 nanometers

nanotechnology

science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scale

affective computing

computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotion

digital divide

the discrepancy between the haves and have-nots with regard to computer technology

software

instructions that tell the computer what to do

Altair 8800

touted as the first personal computer

Apple Computer Company

started by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak

Apple II

First computer to have an operating system that was stored in read only memory (ROM)

the Osborne

the industry's first portable computer

Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC)

a programming language that the beginning programming student could easily learn; revolutionized the software industry; began the key language of the PC

Microsoft Company

started by Bill Gates and Paul Allen

graphical user interface (GUI)

unlike the command-and menu-driven interfaces used in earlier software, these have display graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user-friendly

VisiCalc

first spreadsheet program

WordStar

first word processing application

mosaic

the first web browser

pascalene

the first accurate mechanical calculator

Jacquard loom

relied on stiff cards with punched holes to automate the weaving process; much later this punch-card process would be adopted as a means for computers to record and read data

Analytical engine

the first automatic calculator; had components similar to those found in today's computers like the store (RAM) and mill (CPU); invention that gave Charles Babbage the title "the father of computing"

Hollerith Tabulating Machine

machine that used punch cards to tabulate census data; designed by Herman Hollerith who started the Tabulating Machine Company which later changed its name to IBM

Z1

thought to be the first computer to include certain features that are integral to today's systems, such as a control unit and separate memory functions

Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)

the first electrically powered digital computer; the first to use the binary system, first to use vacuum tubes, first to have memory that repowered itself upon booting

compiler

a program that translates Engilsh-language instruction into computer language

Turing Machine

hypothetical model that included a concept that was the precursor to today's RAM

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)

government-sponsored machine developed to calculate the settings used for weapons; generally thought of as the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer

Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC)

first commercially successful electronic digital computer; operated on magnetic tape instead of punch cards like its competitors; first-generation computer

first-generation computers

computers that were the last to use vacuum tubes to store data

transistor

a smaller and more powerful means to store data that replaced the bulky vacuum tubes of earlier computers

second-generation computers

computers that used transistors

integrated circuit

a small chip capable of containing thousands of transistors; enabled computers to become smaller and lighter

third-generation computers

computers that used the first integrated circuits

microprocessor chip

small chip containing millions of transistors; functions as the CPU (brains) of the computer

fourth-generation computers

computers that used a microprocessor chip

data

a representation of a fact, a figure, or an idea
ex. the name sam, the name elizabeth, the number 9045573506

information

data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion
ex. the contact Sam Elizabeth who can be reached at (904)-557-3506

binary language

computer language, consists of two digits: 0 and 1

binary digit (bit)

each 0 and 1 in binary language; a digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computer's switches

byte

eight binary digits; in computers each letter of the alphabet, number, special character consists of a unique combination of eight binary digits
Ex. the letter K is 01001011

kilobyte (KB)

approximately 1,000 bytes

megabyte (MB)

approximately 1 million bytes

gigabyte (GB)

approximately 1 billion bytes

terabyte (TB)

around 1 trillion bytes

hardware

any part of the computer you can physically touch

application software

the set of programs you use on a computer to help you carry out tasks, such as writing a paper

system software

the set of programs that enables your computer's hardware devices and application software to work together

operating system (OS)

the program that controls the way in which your computer system functions; it provides a means by which users can interact with the computer; the most common type of system software

notebook computer

portable computer that is powered by batteries and has a keyboard, a monitor, and other devices integrated into a single compact case

netbook

small, lightweight notebook computer that is generally 7 to 10 inches wide and has a longer battery life than a notebook computer

tablet PC

similar to a notebook but features a touch sensitive screen that can swivel and fold flat

desktop computer

computer that is intended for use at a single location, and is therefore stationary

peripheral device

component such as a monitor of keyboard that is connected to the computer

all-in-one computer

computer that houses not just the computer's processor and memory but also its monitor
Ex. Apple iMac

mainframe

a large, expensive computer that supports hundred of users simultaneously; many programs but slow pace

supercomputer

a specially designed computer that can perform complex calculations extremely rapidly; designed to execute only a few programs as quickly as possible
Ex. weather forecasting

embedded computer

a specially designed computer chip that resides in another device, such as your car or the electronic thermostat in your home; self contained computer devices that have their own programming and typically do not receive input from you or interact with other systems

input device

enables you to enter data and instructions in to the computer; most common are the keyboard and mouse

cursor control keys

another name for the the arrow keys

optical mouse

a mouse that uses internal sensor or laser to detect movement (instead of a rollerball on the bottom)

trackball mouse

a mouse with a rollerball on the top or side of the mouse, doesn't demand much wrist motion so its better for the wrist than an optical mouse

trackpoint device

a small, joy-stic like nub that allows you to move the cursor with the tip of your finger

liquid crystal display (LCD)

also called a flat-panel monitor, is light weight and energy efficient; this monitor has replaced the CRT monitor

legacy technology

computing devices or peripherals that use techniques, parts, and methods from an earlier time that are no longer popular

pixel

tiny dots that create the images you see on your monitor

aspect ratio

the width-to-height proportion of a monitor

resolution

the clearness of sharpness of the image

nonimpact printer

sprays ink or uses laser beams to transfer marks onto the paper; have replaced impact printers almost entirely

impact printer

has tiny hammerlike keys that strike the paper through an inked ribbon, making marks on the paper

laser printer

uses laser beams and static electricity to deliver toner onto the correct areas of the page

inkjet printer

the standard type of printer found in most homes, prints quickly and quietly, works by spraying tiny drops of ink onto paper

plotter

printers that produce over size pictures that require the drawing of precise and continuous lines, such as maps and architectural plans

thermal printer

printer that works either by melting wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or by burning dots onto specially coated paper; they are used in stores to print receipts and in airports for electronic ticketing, among other places

motherboard

main circuit board that contains the central electronic components of the computer, including the computers processor, its memory, and the many circuit boards that help the computer function

system unit

the metal or plastic case that houses the mother board, the power source, and all the storage devices

expansion cards

circuit boards included on the motherboard that provide additional functionality
Ex. sound card provides connection for speakers

network interface-card (NIC)

enables your computer to connect with other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate internet connection

Random Access Memory (RAM)

place in a computer where the programs and data the computer is currently using are stored; much faster to read from and write to than the hard drive; the entire contents are erased when you turn off the computer

volatile storage

temporary storage, not permanent

Read-only Memory (ROM)

holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up when the computer is powered on; nonvolatile storage so the data is permanent

central processing unit (CPU or processor)

referred to as the "brains" of the computer, it controls all the functions performed by the computer's other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructions

nonvolatile storage

storage that holds the data and instructions you computer needs permanently

universal serial bus (USB)

the most common port type used to connect input and output devices to the computer, mainly because of its ability to transfer data quickly

digital video interface (DVI) and S-video (supervideo) ports

port where newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as televisions, DVD players, and projects connect to

ergonomics

applied science concerned with designing and arranging things people use so that people and things interact most efficiently and safely

internet

the largest computer network in the world; a network of networks that connects billions of computer globally

web browser

software that enables a user to display and interact with text and other media on the web

e-mail (electronic mail)

a written message that is sent and received over the internet

instant messaging (IM) services

programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are online

netiquette

general rules of etiquette that exist across chat rooms and other online forums

web 2.0

describes an evolved type of web interactions between people, software, and data; describes a trend of new applications to combine the functionality of multiple applications

weblog (blog)

a personal log or journal posted on the web

wiki

a type of web site that allows user to change its content but adding, removing, or editing the content

podcast

a clip of audio or video content that is broadcasted over the internet using compressed audio and video, might include radio shows, audiobooks, etc.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS)

an XML-based format that facilitates the delivery of frequent content updates on web pages

aggregators

software programs that go out and grab the latest updates of web material according to your specifications

spider

the first part of a search engine, a program that constantly collects data on the web. (followed by a indexer program and then a search engine software)

subject directory

a structure outline of web sites organized by topics and subtopics

Boolean operators

words such as AND, NOT, and OR that describe the relationships between keywords in a search

client

a computer that asks for data

server

a computer that receives the request and returns the data to the client

internet backbones

the largest and fastest pathways of the internet, all intermediate pathways connect back to these

internet protocol address (IP address)

a set of four number separated by periods and commonly referred to as a dotted quad or dotted decimal; they're the means by which all computers connected to the internet identify each other

broadband

"high speed internet"- a type of connection that offers a faster means to connect to the internet

relativism

a theory that holds that there is no universal moral truth and that instead there are only beliefs, perspectives, and values

situation ethics

states that decision making should be based on the circumstances of a particular situation and not on fixed laws

societal ethics

a general set of unwritten guidelines for people to follow

rule utilitarianism

an ethical theory that espouses establishing moral guidelines through specific rules; idea behind this system is that if everyone adheres to the same moral code, society as a whole will improve and people will be happier

unethical behavior

not conforming to a set of approved standards of social of professional behavior

amoral behavior

a person has no sense of right and wrong and no interest in the moral consequences of his or her actions

positive psychology

research that has shown that applying your ethics and values to your daily life can have an impact on your health and happiness

whistle-blowers

people that report business to regulatory agencies for committing illegal acts

program

an instruction set that provides a means for us to interact with and use the computer

productivity software

includes programs that enables you to perform various tasks require at home, school, and business; includes word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, data-base, and personal information manager programs

open source software

software that is publicly available and has few restrictions

proprietary software

software that is not free, nor open source; the code can't be copied, distributed, or changed with the stringent copyright protections of software products

wizard

a systematic guide that walks you through the steps necessary to complete a complicated task

template

a predesigned form included in many productivity applications; they provide basic structurefor a particular kind of document, spreadsheet, or presentation

macro

a small program that groups a series of commands so they will run as a single command.
Ex. teacher may write one to sort the grades in her grade book automatically in descending order and to highly those grades that add up to less than a C average

integrated software application

a single software program that incorporates the most commonly used tools of many productivity software programs into a single integrated program
Ex. microsoft works

vertical market software

software designed for a specific industry

integrated help

means the documentation for the product is built directly into the software so you dont need to keep track of bulky manuals

beta version

an application that is still under development

shareware

software that enables the user to "test" the program for a limited time free of charge

utility program

a small program that performs many of the general house keeping tasks for the computer

network operating system

enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users

server

the computer on a network that manages network resources, such as printers

platform

the combination of a computer's operating system and processor

command driven interface

interface in which you enter commands to communicate with the computer system

user interface

enables you to interact with the computer

menu driven interface

interface in which you choose commands from menus displayed on the screen; eliminated the need for users to know every command because they could select most of the commonly used commands from menus displayed on the screen

interrupt

a unique signal that tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention

interrupt handler

a special numerical code that prioritizes a computers requests

virtual memory

the space on the hard drive where the operating system stores data if there isn't enough RAM to hold all of the programs you're currently trying to run

thrashing

a condition of excessive paging during which the computer can become sluggish

device driver

a special program that facilitates communication between the hardware device and the operating system

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