People are fundamentally self-interested..
What lesson have many people taken from the story of the Ring of Gyges?
Acting to benefit others for the sake of others.
Which of the following is impossible, according to psychological egoism?
It aims to tell us how we do behave, not how we should behave.
Why isn't psychological egoism considered an ethical theory?
The truth of psychological egoism would mean that most of what we take for granted about morality would be mistaken.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between psychological egoism and ethics?
Any action performed because one believes it to be morally required.
What is strictly conscientious action?
Both a. and b
Which of the following must be true in order for the Argument from Expected Benefit to succeed?
The theory is not being held rationally..
If one cannot conceive of any evidence that would refute psychological egoism, what does this suggest about the theory?
It is probably false, but it might be true..
According to the text, what does the evidence suggest about psychological egoism?
Such a person acts out of a self-interested desire to avoid guilt.
What would the psychological egoist say about someone who acts to avoid a guilty conscience?
Utilitarianism is a form of consequentialism.
Which of the following best describes the relationship between utilitarianism and consequentialism?
It yields the greatest balance of benefits over drawbacks.
What does it mean to say a policy is optimific?
Accurately predicting the consequences of an action.
What is necessary in order to gain moral knowledge, according to most utilitarians?
The actual consequences of the action.
Which of the following do most utilitarians believe determines the morality of actions?
The expected consequences of the action.
What determines the morality of the intentions behind one's actions, according to utilitarianism?
Conventional morality is mistaken in some ways but is mostly correct
According to the text, what do most utilitarians believe about conventional moral wisdom?
Moral rules can be helpful but can be broken if doing so is optimific.
What attitudes do most utilitarians take toward moral rules?
If an animal suffers to the same extent as a human, the animal's suffering is equally important.
What attitude do most utilitarians take toward non-human animals?
Some pleasures are "higher" than others and thus more valuable.
Which of the following best represents John Stuart Mill's view of pleasure?
It renders utilitarianism incapable of giving concrete advice.
Why is the lack of a method for measuring well-being a problem for utilitarians?
Doing something that is admirable and praiseworthy but not morally required.
What is supererogation?
It is in some ways a strength and in others a weakness.
According to the text, how should we regard utilitarianism's commitment to impartiality?
Performing an action that is not optimific.
Which of the following would the utilitarian regard as wrong in all possible circumstances?
Justice is intrinsically valuable.
Which of the following responses to the problem of injustice is notconsistent with utilitarianism?
It is thought to solve the problem of injustice.
What is the primary motivation for rule consequentialism?
Other versions of consequentialism are preferable to it.
What is the attitude of most consequentialists toward rule consequentialism?
It makes morality depend on a person's desires.
According to Kant, what is the main problem with the golden rule?
Act only on maxims that are universalizable.
What is the fundamental principle of morality, according to Kant?
It is inconsistent with consequentialism.
Which of the following best characterizes Kant's moral theory?
Rationality requires us to be moral.
What did Kant believe is the relationship between rationality and morality
A command of reason that does not depend on our desires.
What is a categorical imperative, according to Kant?
A command of reason that depends on our desires.
What is a hypothetical imperative, according to Kant?
t permits the actions of principled fanatics.
According to the text, what is wrong with the principle of universalizability?
Always treat a human being as an end, never as a mere means.
Which of the following is Kant's principle of humanity?
All and only those beings that possess autonomy and rationality.
When Kant talks about humanity, to whom is he referring?
When they are performed from the good will.
When did Kant think that actions are truly praiseworthy?
An understanding of what is morally required.
What is motivating a person who acts from the good will?
he morality of an action depends on factors outside of one's control.
Which of the following characterizes cases of moral luck?
It is permissible to treat them in any way we like.
Which of the following claims about non-human animals did Kant not endorse?
Ethical theorizing should begin by identifying a method for distinguishing right from wrong.
What does the approach known as proceduralism claim?
When it is permitted by the rules that free, equal, and rational people would agree to.
When is an action morally right, according to contractarianism?
What is the term for a situation in which everyone is made worse off when all pursue self-interest?
The state of nature.
What was Thomas Hobbes's term for a condition in which there is no government to maintain order?
To mutually agree on a set of rules for social cooperation.
What did Hobbes think is the only way to escape from the condition mentioned in question 4?
By showing that free, equal, and rational people would agree to such rules.
How do contractarians seek to justify basic moral rules?
Whenever most others consistently fail to abide by them.
When is it permissible to break moral rules, according to contractarianism?
An imaginary device for ensuring that contractors make fair choices.
What is Rawls's veil of ignorance?
Whenever a law is grossly unjust.
When does contractarianism claim that civil disobedience is justified?
He believes that breaking promises is unjust but doesn't care.
Which of the following best characterizes the attitude of Hobbes's character "the Fool"?
People can sometimes enjoy common goods without contributing to them.
Which of the following best describes the free-rider problem?
To promote self-interest through mutually beneficial agreements.
What is the ultimate point of morality, according to contractarians?
What is the term for the idea that we have agreed to obey the law simply by living where we do?
The agreements we would make if we were free, rational, and seeking cooperation.
According to contractarianism, what fixes our basic moral duties?
It is unclear why we should follow agreements made by people unlike us.
Which of the following is a problem for the idea of veil of ignorance?
According to contractarianism, what motivates the contractors to select the rules they do?
Which of the following are members of the moral community, according to contractarianism?
Duty is defined as what a virtuous person would do.
What is the relationship between duty and virtue, according to virtue ethics?
How we can know who our role models should be.
Which of the following does virtue ethics have a hard time explaining?
Virtue is acquired through education and training.
How did Aristotle think that virtue could be acquired?
A situation in which a good person's life will be ruined, no matter what she does.
What is a tragic dilemma?
Virtue ethics wrongly defines duty in terms of virtue instead of vice versa.
Which of the following is a statement of the priority problem?
All religions teach basically the same moral message.
Which of the following assumptions was notexamined in this chapter?
Doing the right thing because it's the right thing to do.
According to the text, what does good moral character involve?
Every law requires a lawmaker.
Which of the following is a premise in the Argument for God's Creation of Morality?
If the Divine Command Theory is true, then God's commands are arbitrary.
What problem does Socrates's question in the Euthyphro raise for the Divine Command Theory?
All of the above.
Which of the following is required if we are to be justified in relying on religion for moral guidance?