Organism that makes its own food using carbon from inorganic molecules such as CO2, and energy from the environment.
Main photosynthetic pigment in plants.
Organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic compounds assemble by other organisms.
Metabolic pathway by which most autotrophs capture light energy and use it to make sugars from CO2 and water.
An organic molecule that can absorb light of certain wavelengths.
Distance between the crest of two successive wave of light.
Organelle of photosynthesis in plants and some protists.
Cluster of pigments and proteins that converts light energy to chemical energy in photosynthesis.
Semifluid matrix between the thylakoid membrane and the two outer membranes of a chloroplast.
A chloroplast's highly folded inner membrane system; forms a continuous compartment in the stroma.
electron transfer phosphorylation
Metabolic pathway in which electron flow through electron transfer chains sets up a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP formation.
Metabolic pathway of photosynthesis that converts light energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH.
Metabolic pathway of photosynthesis that uses ATP and NADPH to assemble sugars from water and CO2.
Type of plant that uses only the Calvin-Benson cycle to fix carbon.
Type of plant that minimized photorespiration by fixing carom twice, in two cell types.
Type of C4 plant that conserves water by fixing carbon twice, at different times of the day.
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis, cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2.
Process by which carbon from an inorganic source such as carbon dioxide becomes incorporated into an organic molecule.
Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase. Carbon-fixing enzyme of the Calvin-Benson cycle.
Reaction in which rubisco attaches oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate.
Gaps that open between guard cells on plant surfaces.
Involving or occurring in the presence of oxygen.
Aerobic pathway that breaks down carbohydrates to produce ATP.
Occurring in the absence of oxygen.
Set of reactions in which glucose or another sugar is broken down to two pyruvate for a net yield of two ATP.
Three-carbon end product of glycolysis.
Cyclic pathway that, along with acetyl-CoA formation, breaks down two pyruvate to carbon dioxide for a net yield of two ATP and many reduce coenzymes.
Anaerobic carbohydrate breakdown pathway that produces ATP and ethanol.
An anaerobic pathway by which cells harvest energy from carbohydrates.
Anaerobic carbohydrate breakdown pathway that produces ATP and lactate.