The sum total of all living organisms
All the living organisms in a specific community
pertaining to factors or things that are separate and independent from living things; nonliving
A group of ecosystems that are related by having a similar type of vegetation governed by similar climatic conditions. (i.e. tundra, deciduous forests)
The overall ecosystem of Earth. The sum total of all biomes and smaller ecosystems.
the condition or amount of any factor or combination of factors that will produce the best result. (i.e. the best combo of heat, light, and moisture)
Range of Tolerance
the range of conditions within which an organism or population can survive and reproduce
Law of Limiting Factors
the law stating that a system may be limited by the absence or minimum amount of any required factor.
One way flow of energy
energy flows in a one-way direction through ecosystems and eventually leaves earth. Therefore the sun must resupply it
a species whose role is essential for the survival of many other species in an ecosystem (wolves in yellowstone)
A reproductive strategy of a species that involves producing large numbers of young and survival of small numbers over time.
the transition of a human population from a condition of a high birthrate and a high death rate to a condition of a low birthrate and a low death rate.
the development of urban settings
species which colonize previously uncolonized land (succession and pine-apple forrest)
impact to population, affluence, and technology
a feeding level defined with respect to the primary source of energy. Green plants are at the first trophic level, primary consumers at the second, secondary consumers at the third, and so on.
A property whereby a rapidly growing human population may be expected to grow for 50-60 years after replacement fertility is reached.
carrying capacity (k)
the maximum population of a given species that an ecosystem can support without being degraded or destroyed in the long run
the totality of factors such as adverse weather conditions, shortages of food or water, predators, and diseases that tend to cut back populations and keep them from growing or spreading
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species)
an internationally treaty conveying some protection to endangered and threatened species by restricting trade in those species or their products.
a list of threatened and endangered species maintained by the IUCN
the accumulation of higher and higher concentrations of potentially toxic chemicals in organisms
bioaccumulation occurring through several levels of a food chain
the mass of biological material
a close relationship between two organisms from which both derive a benefit
Characterized by nutrient-rich water supporting an abundant growth of algae or other aquatic plants at the surface.
First Law of Thermodynamics
the energy of an isolated system is constant
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of any closed system not in thermal equilibrium almost always increases.
the Earth's surface and clouds absorb visible and invisible radiation from the sun and re-emit the energy as infrared back to the atmosphere. Absorbed by lots of different things and shot around the atmosphere.
Radiation similar to light but with slightly shorter wavelengths and with more energy than violet light. Sun burn. Absorbed strongly by ozone molecules
water that contains relatively large amount of calcium or certain other minerals
cloudy due to particles present (turbidity of water= clearness/cleanliness)
the amount or concentration of salt in a substance (water)
Tragedy of the Commons
the overuse or overharvesting and consequent depletion or destruction of a renewable resource that tends to occur when the resource is treated as a commons--that is, when it is open to be used or harvested by anyone
a relation between two species in which one is benefited and the other is not affected
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
Habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution, population, and overexploitation
Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its usefulness to humans
Value of an organism, species, ecosystem, or the earth's biodiversity based on its existence, regardless of whether it has any usefulness to us.
A surrogate species selected with the assumption that protection of its habitat will serve as an "umbrella" to protect many other species; often a species with large or specialized habitat requirements or which is easy to count.