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Cells Benchmark Review Vocabulary!

atom

the smallest unit of an element.

ATP

the high energy molecule produced in cellular respiration. Our body breaks the bonds in ATP to release the energy we need to do things.

cellular respiration

the cellular reaction that uses oxygen and glucose to produce carbon dioxide and water. The energy released from the glucose is stored in ATP molecules.

cell wall

an additional layer of protection surrounding the cell membrane of some cells.

chlorophyll

the green pigment found in plants, algae and photosynthetic bacteria that captures energy from the sun.

chloroplast

the organelle in which photosynthesis takes place.

chromosomes

coiled up DNA. We have 46 chromosomes in our body cells and 23 chromosomes in our sex cells.

kinetic energy

the energy of motion

mitosis

cell division that produces body cells. During mitosis, the parent cell grows, copies everything inside and splits in half, producing two identical daughter cells.

molecule

two or more atoms held together by chemical forces called bonds.

Periodic Table of Elements

a table that provides information on the different elements that make up matter.

matter

anything that takes up space. The three states of matter are solid, liquid and gas.

photosynthesis

the cellular reaction that uses energy from the sun, carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and glucose. The energy from the sun is stored in the glucose molecule.

potential energy

energy of position

products

molecules produced in a chemical reaction. They are located on the right hand side of the arrow.

reactants

molecules broken down in a chemical reaction. They are located on the left hand side of the arrow.

ribosomes

organelles that read the code sent from the DNA to produce proteins which give us our traits. All cells have ribosomes.

cell membrane

a cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell

nucleus

control center of the cell that contains the DNA

chemical energy

energy stored in chemical bonds

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