Actinomycosis associated with what?
rock hard submandibular mass
sulfur granules in drainage
doesn't obey anatomic boundaries
chronic granulomatous infection
when you think clostridia, think of what overall?
what classification of anaerobes is typically not susceptible to metronidazole?
non-spore forming gram positive; treat with penicillin or doxycycline
what looks like a fried egg?
mycoplasmas (except M. pneumoniae)
toxic megacolon is a result of ____
how to diagnose c. difficile?
best antibiotics to use against anaerobes
metronidazole (except against non-spore forming Gram-positives)
which two bacteria can fit through the filter?
how to distinguish chlamydia trachomatis from other species?
iodine-staining glycogen granules
how to treat syphilis?
give penicillin (even for neurosyphilic, but give IV)
if blood smear shows morulae, what should you suspect?
ehrlichia or anaplasma
in which syphilis cases should a PCN regimen be used exclusively?
what is the Jarish-Herxheimer rxn?
reaction from the treatment of syphilis
the higher the RPR/VDRL titer, the higher the risk of developing the reaction.
where to find rash in secondary syphilis?
palms and soles
how to treat francisella?
main virulence factor of Brucella?
blocks phagosome/lysosome fusion in macrophages
Roth lesions: where and indicative of what?
how does it move around?
ticks between animals; for humans, inhaled from contaminated sources
what changes between reticulate and elementary bodies?
what pathogen is the Maltese Cross associated with?
babesiosis- parasitizes erythrocytes --> hemolysis, forms tetrads called Maltese crosses.
what looks like Lyme disease?
STARI; symptoms mild and self limited; no long-term manifestations
what bacteria associated with lyme disease?
ascending paralysis =
tick bite paralysis
If an enterobactericiae produces extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), which antibiotic should you give?
how would one measure disease effect?
odds ratio, relative risk
how to measure treatment effect?
t-tests between two groups
impetigo, which organisms? how to tell which?
s. aureus or strep
if bullous, s. aureus; if not, group a strep
superficial strep cellulitis, bright red, well demarcated border, usually on legs or face
treatment for tss?
beta-lactam and lincosamide (clindamycin)
cause of folliculitis from diabetes or swimming pool?
osler's nodule: where and indicative of what?
on pads of fingers