Children learn appropriate ways of thinking, talking, and acting through the process of:
The systematic study of how biology affects social behavior is known as:
Harry and Margaret Harlow's experiment with rhesus monkeys demonstrated that:
without socialization, young monkeys do not learn normal social or emotional behavior.
Which of the following statements about child maltreatment is true?
Many types of neglect constitute child maltreatment.
According to Sigmund Freud, the ________ consists of the moral and ethical aspects of personality.
One of Sigmund Freud's most important contributions was making people aware of the effect of ________ on human personality development.
early childhood experiences
According to Jean Piaget's four stages of cognitive development, a child in the ________ will believe that there is more water in a taller, narrower beaker than in a shorter and wider beaker because the water line is higher on the taller beaker (even if the amount of water in the two beakers is the same).
True or False: According to sociologists, a person's sense of self (self-concept) is present from the moment of birth.
The theories of Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead can best be classified as ________ perspectives.
According to Charles Horton Cooley, we base our perception of who we are on how we think other people see us and on whether this seems good or bad to us. He referred to this perspective as the:
Which of the following is an example of George Herbert Mead's concept of role-taking?
a boy playing at being a firefighter, a girl pretending to be a doctor, a girl pretending to be a firefighter
Which of the following refers to the child's awareness of the demands and expectations of society?
Sociologist Melvin Kohn has suggested that ________ is one of the strongest influences on what and how parents teach their children.
According to sociologists, ________ is the most important agent of socialization in all societies.
As agents of socialization, peer groups are thought to "pressure" children and adolescents because:
individuals must earn their acceptance with their peers by conforming to the group's norms.
True or False: In the United States there are gender norms that tell us what attitudes and behaviors are considered to be appropriate for males and females.
True or False: Gender socialization contributes to people's beliefs about what the "preferred" sex of a child should be.
Which of the following is an agent of socialization?
the church, the school, the family
The process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles is known as:
Social devaluation is most likely to be experienced during which stage of the life course:
True or False: For most people, the process of socialization is complete by the end of adolescence.
All of the following are examples of voluntary resocialization, except:
becoming a prisoner.
Erving Goffman referred to such organizations as military boot camps, jails and prisons, some mental hospitals, and concentration camps as:
In the future, the ________ is likely to remain the institution that most fundamentally shapes and nurtures personal values.
True or False: The growing dominance of technology is a central value-oriented issue facing parents and teachers as they attempt to socialize children.
True or False: Politics and religion are components of social structure.
________ is the process by which people act toward or respond to other people.
True or False: All activities--including scavenging in garbage bins and living "on the streets"--are social in nature.
________ theorists emphasize that social structure is essential because it creates order and predictability in society.
A(n) ________ is a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
ascribed status, achieved status, master status
Which of the following is defined as a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or effort?
True or False: Sociologists equate the term "status" with high levels of prestige.
True or False: Where we occupy a status, we play a role.
Maria is a female born to Mexican American parents. She is a wife, mother, and a psychologist. Which of her status positions is an ascribed status?
True or False: A person's ascribed statuses influence their achieved statuses.
Which of the following occurs when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity?
Which of the following is NOT a formal organization?
a study group
Which of the following are formal organizations?
a college, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Salvation Army
Which of the following is a social institution?
education, mass media, the military
Which of the following refers to the type of social cohesion that is found in preindustrial societies?
Postindustrial societies are also referred to as:
Industrial societies are based on which of the following?
Which type of society is characterized by an information explosion?
According to Erving Goffman, people tend to engage in ________ when they witness a flawed role performance by another person.
Which of the following is the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning we give to an experience?
social construction of reality
Erving Goffman noted that when strangers pass each other on a city street they will tend to look downward when they are within eight feet of each other. He referred to this behavior as:
Which of the following is the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation?
Airline flight attendants are expected to be friendly to passengers, while telephone bill collectors may be encouraged to act in an angry and threatening manner. These ways of behaving are examples of which of the following?
Which of the following refers to the process where people analyze a social context, determine what is in their best interest, and adjust their attitudes and actions accordingly?
definition of the situation
Emile Durkheim was concerned with the question "How do societies manage to hold together?" He believed that social solidarity in industrialized societies is based on which of the following?
dependence on others
True or False: Sociologists point out that currently there are now fewer possible statuses for a person to occupy and roles to play than at any other time in history.
An ethical misconduct disaster (EMD):
threatens or is perceived to threaten the firm's continuity of operations.
True or False: Coercive power involves financial or material control, such as a boycott.
True or False: Crisis management focuses on routine problems that occur frequently throughout the business life cycle.
True or False: The Reactive-Defensive-Accommodative-Proactive Scale is useful as a theoretical tool and has no practical importance to organizations.
Which of the following is not an example of a primary stakeholder?
Which of the following are examples of a primary stakeholder?
Employees, Customers, Investors
True or False: A business exists because of relationships among employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers, and managers that develop strategies to attain success.
True or False: Companies intuitively know how to communicate effectively to stakeholders during and after a disaster.
A stakeholder orientation includes all of the following activities except:
minimizing the influence of stakeholder information on the firm.
Stakeholders are considered more important to an organization when:
they can make use of their power on the organization.
Conventional wisdom and emerging insights on developing stakeholder trust:
True or False: Five hundred women and men are first-year graduate students at a university. According to sociologists, they DO NOT meet the definition of a group.
A(n) ________ is a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time while a(n) ________ is a number of people who may never have met one another but share a similar characteristic.
Gary had thought about trying out for the hockey team, but because he is not very athletic, he decides to hang out with the "smart kids" at his school. He harbors some feelings of hostility for the hockey team. For Gary, the hockey team represents a(n):
True or False: Categories are social groups because the people in them usually create a social structure.
True or False: According to sociologists Robyn Bateman Driskell and Larry Lyon (2002), true communities cannot be established in the digital environment of cyberspace.
According to Georg Simmel, one of the most important characteristics of a social group is its:
________ leadership is goal or task oriented; ________ leadership provides emotional support for members.
A group leader at a business seminar is only minimally involved with the decisions made by the group and encourages members to make their own choices. This illustrates which kind of leader?
In one of Solomon Asch's experiments, a subject was asked to compare the length of lines printed on a series of cards without knowing that all other research "subjects" actually were assistants to the researcher. The results of Asch's experiments revealed that:
33 percent of the subjects routinely chose to conform to the opinion of the assistants by giving an incorrect answer.
Which of the following statements is true of Stanley Milgram's experiment involving simulated electric shocks?
Research such as this raises important questions concerning research ethics.
According to the text, the tragic loss of the space shuttle Columbia illustrates the concept of:
Which of the following is a type of formal organization, as identified by sociologist Amitai Etzioni?
normative, coercive, utilitarian
Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of bureaucratic organizations identified by Max Weber?
Which of the following are the characteristics of bureaucratic organizations identified by Max Weber?
impersonality, division of labor, hierarchy of authority
According to Max Weber, rationality refers to:
the process by which traditional methods of social organization are gradually replaced by bureaucracy.
According to the textbook, the bureaucratic model of organization is the most universal organizational form in:
religion, government, business
According to the textbook, bureaucracy's other face refers to:
Which of the following is NOT a shortcoming of bureaucracy?
division of labor
Which of the following are shortcomings of bureaucracy?
resistance to change; perpetuation of race, class, and gender inequalities; inefficiency and rigidity
According to sociologist Joe R. Feagin's recent research on racial and ethnic inequalities in organizations, many middle class African Americans today:
have experienced an internal conflict between the ideal of equal opportunity and the prevailing norms of many organizations.
According to Robert Merton, bureaucracies sometimes exhibit ________, which occurs when the rules become an end in themselves rather than a means to an end.
True or False: More humane bureaucracies are characterized by less-rigid hierarchical structures and greater sharing of power.
True or False: Until recently, many corporations in Japan guaranteed their workers permanent employment.
Small work groups that meet regularly with one or two managers to discuss the group's performance are known as:
In socially sustainable organizations, there is less ________ than in traditional organizational structures.
True or False: Some organizational and management analysts suggest that more attention must be paid to the "stakeholders" of an organization even though it means that the organizations will be unprofitable.
True or False: The recent approach to organizational structure known as "smart working" is based on the assumption that people can work "smarter" if they avoid the use of cell phones and office computers.
In the film "The Electronic Story Teller," Alvin Gerbner said that the _________ cultivates a perception of reality.
When a person's sense of identity is partially influenced by a role
involves giving impression that we are just going through the motions when really there is lack of commitment to a role
What are the 4 primary emotions?
fear, sadness/depression, happiness, anger
The Skeels & Dye research was key with what?
Dr. H used the example of needing gas, so she goes to her neighbors house to borrow some and they say no. Her _______ would suggest she kills, her _______ would say how do you want to do it, and her _______ says that's morally wrong.
id, ego, superego