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Augustus

"the revered one"; Octavian renamed

imperator

Latin for emperor

praetorian guard

9000 men who guarded the person of the emperor

Varus and the Germans

German general that defeated Augustus

Senatorial

ruling class that needed to possess property worth 1 million sesterces

Equestrian

all Roman citizens who possessed property worth 900 sesterces; could hold office but not as important as senatorial

lower class

less power since assemblies powers were diminished; could gain wealth or hold low office in army to move up to equestrian

Julio-Claudian dynasty

4 successors to Augustus were related to his family or his wife's Livia

Nero

eliminated people he wanted including murdering his mother; extravagancies sparked a revolt of Roman legion; his guards deserted him and he committed suicide

"5 good emperors"

5 rulers known for tolerance and diplomacy

Trajan

one of good emperors that had program to assist poor parents in raising and educating children; Trajan built new forum

Hadrian

one of good emperors that built Panthenon; Hadrian fortified boundaries

Hadrian's Wall

Defensive wall 80 miles along northern Britain to keep Scots out of Roman Britain

Pax Romana

Roman peace

frontiers

Hadrian built fortifications along border with permanent bases behind the frontiers; defensive frontier policy

provinces

Provided many of the legionnaires for the Roman army and may of the emperors

trade, industry and agriculture

Trade increased especially with China, trade stimulated manufacturing; agriculture chief occupation of most people

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