chemical change that creates and action potential that leads to contraction
- located in the walls of aorta & internal carotid
- detect changes in BP & cardiac center responds through stimulation
increased heart rate
decreased heart rate
relaxation phase of cardiac activity
CO = HR x CV
volume of blood ejected by a ventricle in 1 minute
the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle with each contraction
The number of contractions of the ventricles each minute
amount of blood delivered to the heart by venous return
the force required to eject blood from the ventricles
the force opposing blow flow; the amount of friction with the vessel walls encountered by blood
Increased afterload ->
Normal CO & SV in each ventrical
L<3 is bigger than R<3
BP = CO x PR
increased = vasoconstriction
decreased = vasodilation
build up of plaques (atheromas) in the arteries (large, coronary, carotid)
Choleserol, Foam Cells, CT cells (fibroblasts), Fibrin, Cell debris
steroid used as a precursor our steroid hormones; some is needed for our body
cholesterol from tissues to liver (excretion in bile)
cholesterol from liver to tissues
1. damage to endothelial cells
2. inflamation -> leukocytes and lipids accumulate (Fat Streak)
3. Thrombus/ calcification or necrosis
clot that has broken & lodged in a downstream vessel
chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia; not permanent
-caused by increased HR
-relieved by rest and vasodilators
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again
Reload the page to try again!
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.