Chapter 18: Cardiovascular Disorders

29 terms by rebeccablack29

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Depolarization

chemical change that creates and action potential that leads to contraction

Baroreceptor

- located in the walls of aorta & internal carotid
- detect changes in BP & cardiac center responds through stimulation

Tachycardia

increased heart rate

Bradycardia

decreased heart rate

Diastole

relaxation phase of cardiac activity

systole

cardiac contraction

Cardiac Output

CO = HR x CV
volume of blood ejected by a ventricle in 1 minute

Stroke Volume

the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle with each contraction

Heart Rate

The number of contractions of the ventricles each minute

Preload

amount of blood delivered to the heart by venous return

Afterload

the force required to eject blood from the ventricles

Peripheral Resistance

the force opposing blow flow; the amount of friction with the vessel walls encountered by blood

Sympathetic System

increases HR

Parasympathetic System

decreases HR

Increased afterload ->

DECREASES CO

Blood Flow

Pulmonary
R<3 L<3
Systemic

Normal CO & SV in each ventrical

is EQUAL

Normal Pressure

L<3 is bigger than R<3

Blood Pressure

BP = CO x PR

PR

increased = vasoconstriction
decreased = vasodilation

Atherosclerosis

build up of plaques (atheromas) in the arteries (large, coronary, carotid)

Ateromas

Choleserol, Foam Cells, CT cells (fibroblasts), Fibrin, Cell debris

Foam Cells

cholesterol-loaded macrophages

Cholesterol

steroid used as a precursor our steroid hormones; some is needed for our body

HDL

BAD
cholesterol from tissues to liver (excretion in bile)
More protein
Less cholesterol

LDL

GOOD
cholesterol from liver to tissues
Less protein
More cholesterol

Atheroma Formation

1. damage to endothelial cells
2. inflamation -> leukocytes and lipids accumulate (Fat Streak)
3. Thrombus/ calcification or necrosis

Embolus

clot that has broken & lodged in a downstream vessel

Angina Pectoris

chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia; not permanent
-caused by increased HR
-relieved by rest and vasodilators

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