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Actions of the nervous and endocrine system

Endocrine systems act through chemicals clled hormones, the effect is generalized and long term

Chemical Classes of hormones

Hormones are either protein or Chemical

Protein Hormones

most are protein derivatives - the receptors are located on the cell membrane

Sex hormones and those from adrenal cortex are steriods

the receptors are located within the cytoplasm of the cell -

Link between endocrine and nervous systems

hyppthamalus

Regulations of Hormones

regulated by a negative feedback, some hormones are secreted in response to other hormones, secretion is by direct nerve stimulation

Pituitary Gland / Anterior Lobes

GH, TSH, FSH, ACTH, LH, Prolactin

GH

Growth Hormone - promotes protein synthesis which result in growth

TSH

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, stimulates the activity the thyroid gland

FSH

Follicle Stimulating Hormone, a gonadotropin that stimulated the development of ova in the ovaries and sperm in the testes. Also stimulated the production of estrogen in the female

ACTH

Andrenocoricotropic hormone, stilulated activity of adrenal cortex, secretion of cortisol

LH

Lutenizing Hormome, another gonadotropin causes ovulation and secretion of progesterone and estrogen in females . In males it stimulates the production of testosterone

Prolactin

promotes the development of glandular tissues in the breast and stimulates the production of milk

Posterior Lobes

Oxytocin, ADH

Oxytocin

causes uterine muscle contraction and ejection of milk

ADH

Antiduretic Hormone, promoted reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules

Thyroid Gland

T4, T3, Calcitonin

T4, T3

affect the metabolism of carbohydrates proteins and lipids (T4 Stronger)

Calcitonin

reduces calcium levels in the blood

Parathyroid Gland

PTH, Parathyroid Hormone

Parathyroid Hormome

antagonistic to calcitonin, increases blood calcium levels

Adrenal Gland ( Suprarenal0

all hormones from the adrenal cortex are steroids and are regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving the hypothalamus and ACTH from teh anterior pituitary

Adrenal Medulla

epinephrine and norepinephrine

Epinephrine / Norepinphrine

prepare body for strenuous activity and stress. effect similar to that of sympathetic but can last 10 times longer

Pancreas

Glucagon, Insulin, Gylcogen

Glucagon

rasies blood glucose levels

insulin

antagonistic to glucagon, decreases blood glucose levels

Gylcogen

stored glucose

Testes

produce the male sex hormones which are collectively called androgens - principal androgen is testosterone development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics

Ovaries

estrogen and progesterone

Estrogen

responsible fore development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics

Progesterone

maintains the uterine lining for pregnance

Pineal Gland

Melatonin

Melatonin

regulates circadian rhythms

Thymus Gland

Thymosin

Thymosin

promotes the maturation of T-Cells in the immune system

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