physical structure, form of a city; its development or change
conglomeration of people, big groups of people, buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
build up of city and suburban realm
lived together using farming at a subsistence level
extra grains; beyond subsistence level
social classes; one of the characteristics of a civilization
urban elite; decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources often the lives of others through their policies. Another characteristic of civilizations
first urban revolution
8,000 BCE; plant domestication/animal domestication
area between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; location of first civilization in 3,500 BCE. Many individual city-states with patron god and king with divine right
Nile River Valley
in Egypt. Produced 3 periods of civilizatino starting in 3,100 BCE; old kingdom, middle kingdom, and new kingdom: old kingdom is when the pyramids were built, the middle kingdom had all classes working together, and in the new kingdom people became aggressive and started conquering new lands
Indus River Valley
2,100 BCE Harappan civilization developed. Then 500 years later disappeared
Huang He and Wei River Valleys
2,000 BCE; produced Chinese civilization - kings with divine right to rule
means middle - between north and south america, includes the islands in the region of southern mexico, olmecs, maya
high point of a city. Every Greek city-state had one. Ground structures were built there
open space; means market; also a place where the Greeks gathered to debate, lecture, judge, and plan military campaigns
suitable location for settlement; based on climate, topography, soil, fertility, resources, etc.; the longest lasting, largest cities started based on these principles
focal point of Roman life, a combination of the Greek agora and acropolis; coliseum
benefits of relative location of a city, its proximity to trade routes, schools, industry, etc.
as technology changes, as global giants change, trade routes change and so do the distribution of cities. Silk roads to Mongol trade routes, Abbasid land routes to Indian ocean routes
the largest city is twice as big a the second larges, three times as big as the third largest, etc.
division of city into certain regions for specific purposes; commercial, residention, industrial
two parts; level one migrations to the south and west caused by boomers and their retirement plans. Level two is government initiative to attract business to the south
outlying, funtionally uniform part of the urban area; usually adjacent to the central city; functions include; residential and schools, sometimes offices and shopping malls
central business district
concentration of business in a city's downtown; where it is differs from continent to continent
urban area, not suburban - the older city
the process by which lands that were previously outside of the urban environment become urbanized. A sign of a good economy. Also shows signs of physical contraints or internal landuse. Can be known as urban sprawl
personal vehicles and new transportation corridors; the outer city grew and became more independent. Located near intersections; attracted more business
spatial components of the modern metropolis where each realm is a seperate entity, yet is linked together to form a larger metropolitan framework. They are not just satellites, they also shape the metropolis
recognizes the combination of old, colonial, and new global markets. Traditional in equitable patterns from the colonial era exist. The modernized areas lead outward from the old colonial center
area of the city that has been neglected by the government.
Gangs or organizations can getaway with more in these areas. Attracts crime and illegal controls.
model of modern Asian cities. The absence of the same type of CBD as in other places is a reflection of ancient patterns, modern historical changes, even newer global market
unplanned development of crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and pieces of cardboard. Found in primate cities of the peripheral states where the government cannot keep up with the housing and employment needs
north american local governmeent initiative. most city councils and planners zone so that a fast food restaurant is not next to housing, etc. There are few North Amerian cities that do not have zoning laws. Houston is one and therefore housing and restaurants can be next to each other
real estate agents illegal activity of putting our the word that a minority family was moving into the neighborhood - encouraging white flight - then the property could be bought inexpensively then used intensively for a profit - at the expense of quality
inner city revitalization attemp that creates a draw for tourists and residents as a source of entertainment, water front theme attractions, festival marketplaces, ets. Doesn't attract permanent residents
the buying and rehabilitation of old homes - raises value and pricing in area; not always good for poorer residents
another urban revitalization project of tearing down and rebuilding - sometimes leads to buildings that don't aesthetically fit the neighborhood. Can negatively affect property values for neighbors. Leads to creation of McMansions - supersized and cookie cutter
another urban revitalization project whereby entire neighborhoods are recreated within the downtown complete with a balance of safe neighborhoods, jobs and housing, promoting a community and sense of place. This is meant to contain urban sprawl as well
an effort in the 80s to keep people from fleeing urban areas due to feeling insecure. Creating a feeling of security close to the work place. Also popular in countries wehre there is a minority elite surrounded by a differing majority of lesser economic means
the economic endeavors that are not taxed or counted toward a country's gross national income; usually done by the impoverished people who collect, fix, and repair, and resell from piles of discarded salvagable items
funtion on the global scale, beyond the reach of state borders, funtioning as the service centers of the world economy. Often the world cities in the peripheral countries double as primate cities as well
a country's leading city, always disproportionatly large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling; largest and most economically influential
spaces of consumption
global media such as Walt Disney use cross promotion to encourage the consumption of their products. So, the shows that are aired on Disney Channel have their characters visiting the theme park they own. Orlando's economy is benefitted as it has become and continues to be a space of consumption. Relationships between the city government and Disney's turned time square from skanky to family friendly. This helps New York City's Time Square economy as it becomes a 'space of consumption' for visitors. Potsdamer Platz is the European example of the same phenomenon. These cities also become hubs of media production
the illegal act of outlining areas on a map that a real estate developer will offer to certain types of people. Done as a way to control land values. often racist.
characteristics of a civilization
settled agriculture; agricultural surplus; economic specialization/trade; complex government; complex religion/philosophy; technological innovation; social stratification
visual representation of observable patterns
something believed to be true
assumptions in Christaller's model and theory
s city would be on flat land; the soil fertility would be the same all over; population and purchasing power is uniform; goods and services are sold in all directions out a consistent distance based on willingness to travel; uniform transport networks connect all settlements
What causes his theory to be somewhat antiquated?
development of interstate and internet
what contribution does it still provide about the distribution of cities?
trade area, population size, distance
what are the top level discussions of the sunbelt phenomenon?
the shift of the population concentrations from the northeast to the southwest are due to the snow birds heading south with pension plans. immigrants have moved up from Latin America
what is the more complex truth about the sunbelt phenomenon?
federal spending and decision making has contributed to the influx of jobs in the south around space and research facilites. IT is located in the south
how does this relate to the distribution of cities?
certain cities grow from the above reasons and provide new funtionality that then invites more growth
concentric zone model
In north american cities from industrializtion onward; poorer people - close to center of activity, those with means of transportation (wealthy) live further out
north american cities, with newer industrializtion & newer transportations; all social classes radiate outward but still seperated by proximity to jobs and each other
multiple nuclei model
north american cities, last 20 years; increased international trade - more government spending on larger highways - urbanization grows up around them - still zoned/ segregated, similar patterns
urban realms model
north american cities, now; urban sprawl.
sub-saharan african city
africa, now; CBD segregation based on colonial history and entry into new global economy most of the action is in the center
a generalized model of land use areas in large southeast asian city
southeast asia, now; now-reflects historical development from colonial period. westerners close to port city, industry close to local populous, new mixing between old
a new and improved model of latin american city structure
latin america, now; reflects historical development. at first similar development to north america with exception to the colonial spine outward, reflecting movement of goods to and from other countries (mother country) poor on outer ring since industrialization caused rural to urban migration