Chap. 8-Modern Prisons: Classification and Correctional Programs

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Principle of least eligibility

The ideas that inmates should be the least eligible of all citizens to receive any social benefits beyond those required by the law.

Federal Bureau of Prisons

Institution created in 1929 by the House Special Committee on Federal Penal and Reformatory Institutions.

Supermax Prisons

Often referred to as "maxi-max." These institutions are built to house the most violent and aggressive individuals in the correctional system.

Maximum-security prisons

Correctional institutions that hold inmates requiring the highest degree of custody and control.

Medium-security prisons

Correctional institutions in which inmates are allowed to engage in recreational activities.

Minimum-security prisons

Correctional institutions in which inmates are allowed extensive freedoms under limited correctional supervision.

Classification clinic

Location where an individual was classified according to security and rehabilitative programs. This concept failed because it was independent from the institution that incarcerated the offender.

Integrated classification program

Inmate classification system in which a classification committee, usually chaired by the warden or superintendent of the institution, was formed. The decisions of this committee were binding on the administrative, and any changes in the treatment program of the inmate had to be approved by the committee.

Diagnostic/reception center

Correctional units in which professional staff determines which treatment program and correctional facility are appropriate for the individual offender.

Reception program

First element of a classification program; new inmates should be segregated for purposes of medical tests and for orientation.

Individual psychotherapy

A form of psychotherapy aimed at addressing the specific needs of an individual. The success of this type of therapy in a controlled environment such as prison is highly questionable.

Group psychotherapy

A type of psychotherapy aimed at an individual within a group setting.

Reality Therapy

Therapy that operates on the principle that the past is significant in an individual's behavior only to the extent that he or she so permits; the focus is therefore on the present.

Transactional analysis

Theory based on the belief that each person has three persons within- a parent, an adult, and a child. Games, psychodrama, and script analysis help the individual to understand how these three persons control his or her behavior. The goal is to understand and develop spontaneity and a capacity for intimacy.

Social therapies

Social therapies promote the idea that the client is not to be rehabilitated in isolation from the environment. The two major social therapies are group therapy and milieu management. Also known as environmental therapies.

Behavior modification

Method based on learning theory; applied to change behavior by rewarding appropriate behaviors and removing reinforcements for negative actions.

Lease system

System whereby the prison labor force was placed in the hands of a lessee for a previously agree-upon fee.

Contract System

System under which the state maintained inmates but sold their labor to a contractor, who, in turn, supervised them while providing the necessary work equipment.

Piece-price system

System in which a contractor pays a fixed price for each finished piece of work done by inmates.

Public (state) account system

A system that brought the entire prison labor system under the control of the state.

State-use system

A system whereby inmates were allowed to sell their goods to state-run institutions.

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