One person transfers information to another. Linear process. .
Creating shared meaning and working collaboratively. More about the outcome.
Thinking about communication critically. What are the different goals people are trying to achieve by sending the messages they send? (People are economically, socially, and politically motivated.)
Balancing Creativity and Constraint
Rooted in social theory perspective. Relationship between individuals and society. People influence society and society impacts individuals
Dialogue as Transaction
Special type of communication which promotes equality. Everyone has a say.
Focus is outward (on the other)
A message does not always contain only a single focus. Multiple discourses may be present in a message
Stop, think, process, and carefully adjust. Contrasted with mindless communication.
Attempt to correct problems associated with Empathic conversation. We may lose focus on self when considering the other.
Interaction that allows people to achieve common goals.
Old Social Contract
People worked because they had to. Less thinking, more doing.
New Social Contract
Loyalty to self. We work hard for what we are going to get.
The breaking down of socially constructed barriers
Business is conducted 24/7 even though doors may not be open. Reflects individualism and efficiency.
Equality in the workplace. Creating a confirming climate.
1) Create a workplace where every member thinks and acts like an owner.
2)Reintegrate the management and doing of work
3)Distribute quality information
4)Allow social structure to be built from the bottom up
A conclusive statement that has been supported through the research process. Theories are:
1) Partial-no single theory can explain everything
2) Partisan- biased
3) Problematic-people critique and debate theories
Earliest perspective. Rooted in business. Communication as a downward process. Division of labor. Human Body Metaphor.
Classical Management. People are hired on merit and should be promoted based on merit. Jobs are tenured positions.
People should be valued as human beings. Interpersonal Communication is valued. Labor Unions.
People act based on the meaning they have for things
Productivity increased when there was more attention paid to the employees.
People have a voice, advocated for upward communication. Downward and upward communication is valued. Productivity makes a good employee. Power is less separated.
A system in a complex set of relationships among independent components or parts. Systems are more than the sum of its parts. Human Body Metaphor.
Every aspect of the system impacts and is impacted by other aspects of the system.
There is interaction between a system and its environment. All human systems are open.
Organizations and systems are dynamic because they are composed of people who are dynamic
A move than an organization makes. Can be Deviation amplifying (positive)- progressive steps
counteracting (negative)- back to homeostasis
A number of ways to get the same endpoint.
Historically transmitted pattern of meanings embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conception expressed in symbolic forms by means of which men communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge about and attitudes towards life
The actions, ways of thinking, practices, stories, and artifacts that characterize a particular organization
Combined interviewing and observation used to study culture.
Seen as a researcher/outsider. People are aware what and why you are researching.
Don't reveal research identity. More realistic, but can skew results.
Learning that takes place before you enter an organization
Occurs while you are a member of the organization
Practical View of Culture
Culture is imposed by those with power in an organization. Culture is top-down. More commonly held view.
Interpretive View of Culture
Culture develops from the bottom up.
Explicit Aspects of Culture
Implicit Aspects of Culture
Power distribution and job autonomy
Opportunities for Growth
Tolerance for Risk and Change
Traced to Karl Marx
Became popular in US in 1980s
Questions the status quo and addresses unequal distributions of POWER in organizations.
Explicit form of power. May not always be tangible (ex. respect)
Explicit form of power. The power to punish
Explicit form of power. Associated with respect. For example, a religious figure.
Explicit form of power. More expertise equals more power.
Legitimate/ Position Power
Explicit form of power. Certain job titles are associated with power.
Implicit form of power. A system of belief
Implicit form of power. Ideological control.
Analyzing people's responses to ideological power. Resistance is the opposite.
Anything a scholar would study for information