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Plant Toxicities

Foxglove and other Digitalis: Toxic Principle

Toxic Principle
-Cardiac (digitalis) glycosides
- Sugar ester (aglycone) = toxic principle....not toxic until broken
-all parts of plant

Foxglove and other Digitalis: Mechanism of Action

-interfere w/ NaK ATPase (to)
- IC ↑Na, Ca ↓K
-interfere w/normal electrical conductivity in myocardium (to) AV block

Foxglove and other Digitalis: Toxicity

-high
- 2-3leaves lethal in sm SA
- 5-8g lethal in adult pig

Foxglove and other Digitalis: Conditions of Poisoning/Species at Risk

-all species
-drying
-increases palatability
-no change in toxicity

Foxglove and other Digitalis: Clinical Signs

Clinical Signs
-acute 5-24hrs
-nonspecific GI signs early: severe bloody diarrhea, colic
-CV signs: arrhythmias (AV block)  asystole
-weakness, depression  convulsions, coma
-COD: cardiac failure

Foxglove and other Digitalis: Diagnosis

-ID plant: stomach contents
-Pathology:
- ECG: conduction anomalies
- Nonspecific PM

Foxglove and other Digitalis:Treatment

Treatment
-GI decontamination
-AC, cathartics (don't give if diarrhea present)
-Digibind: antidigitalis toxin

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