studied the classical culture of Greeece and Rome, but used that study to increase their understanding of their own times.
subjects such as grammer, rhetoric, poetry, and history
allowed Renaissance artists to create realistic art
Leonardo da Vinci
he made sketches of nature and of models in his studio, and dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work. Famous Painting: Mona Lisa
sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet FAMOUS ART: the PIETA, biblical Mary hold dead Jesus in her arms.
had his own style of painting that blended Christian and classical styles. FAMOUS ART: The School of Athens
author of, The Book of the Courtier, which describes the manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have
wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power.
printed the first complete edition of the bible using a printing press with moveable type.
a region that included parts of present-day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands.
traveled to Italy to to study Italian masters. he became a pioneer in spreading renaissance ideas to Northern Europe. His method influenced people in Italy. He came up with engraving
an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid.
everyday language of ordinary people
wrote tests on a number of subjects and used his knowledge of classical laguages to produce a new Greek edition of the Bible.
In the book, Utopia, he describes an ideal society in which mean and women live in peace and harmony.
desbribes any ideal society often with the implication that such a society is ultimately impractical.
famous english play writer and poet. His plays were performed around the world.
a lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory.
the german monk and professor of teology who triggered the revolt against the church.
Holy Roman Emporor who summuned Luther to the Diet at the City of Worms.
assemble of German princes
published a widely-read book that set forth his religious beliefs and explained how to orginize and run protestant Church. He preached predestination.
protestants in this city state asked Calvin to lead their community
government run by church officials
religious groups that had broken away from an established church
King Henery and his spanish wife of the time, Catherine of Aragon's only surviving child
Henrey appointed him Archbishop of the Church. he annuled King Henerys marrige with Catherine.
henery and his second wife, Anne Boleyn's, baby
recognized as a saint
acceptable middle ground
Council of Trent
was called by the pope to establish the direction that reform should take. It declared that salvation comes through faith and good works.
Ignatius of Loyola
He led the jesuits to embark on a crusade to defend and spread the Catholic faith worldwide
Teresa of Avila
established her own order of nuns who lived in isolation, eating and sleeping very little and dedicating themselves to prayer and meditation.
seperate quarter of the city
published the book, On the revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. He proposed a sun-centered , model of the univrse. (sun stands in center)
provided evidence that supported Copernicus's theory. He carefully observed the sky for years and accumulated data about the movements of the heavenly bodies.
used Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun. believed taht each planet does not move in a perfect circle around the sun.
assembled an astronomical telescope. he realized that moons orbit around planets and planets orbit around sun.
Francis Bacon & Tene Descartes
challenged the scholarly traditions of the medevil universities that sought to make the physical world fit in with the teachings of the Church.
a step-by-step process of discovery
refined the alchemist's view of chemicals OF chemicals as basic building blocks. he distinguished between individual elements and chemical compounds, and explained the effect of temperature and pressure o gases.
he found that a single forece known as gravity keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun
force that keeps planets in their orbits
a branch of mathmatics partially developed by Newton and used to explain his laws