Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt's Big Stick Policy.
Republican of North Dakota, headed a 1934-1936 Senate investigation, which concluded that banking and munition interests, whom it called "merchants of death", had tricked the US into war to protect their loans and weapon sales to England and France
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
The isolation of a nation, carried out by refusing to communicate or trade with it and by preventing other nations from doing so; FDR called for one against aggressor nations during WWI
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
Pact that promised not to attack one another and secretly agreed to invade and divide Poland between themselves
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh was its most effective speaker.
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
The joint declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world: self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament.
A Japanese aircraft sank this American gunboat carrying tankers on the Yantze River in China. Despite the incident, the United States accepted Japanese apologies
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
US restricted trade of oil and metal to Japan in order to discourage Japan's imperialist aims. One of the reasons Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
First woman elected to the United States House of Representatives and the first female member of Congress. A Republican and a lifelong pacifist, she was the only member of Congress to vote against United States entry into both World War II and World War I. Additionally, she led resistance to the Vietnam War.
War Powers Act 1941
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Congress passed it, granting the President unprecedented authority, Act in 1941 that gave the president the right to reshuffle government agencies and to a lot materials and facilities as needed for defense, with penalties for those who failed to comply
Office of Price Administration
Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration. They froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
An American industrialist who won a government contract to build "Liberty Ships", which were cargo ships used in WWII. He made records when he churned out 1 ship every 14 days and became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established Kaiser Shipyard after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel.
National War Labor Board
During WWII it mediated disputes between management and laborers to prevent strikes
Executive Order 8802
issued by FDR in June 1941, first presidential directive on race since Reconstruction, it prohibited discriminatory employment practices by federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work, and established the Far Employment Practices Commission to monitor compliance
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Congress of Racial Equality
Organization Founded by pacifists in 1942 to promote racial equality through peaceful means.
GI Bill of Rights
Also known as Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave money to veternas to study in colleges, universities, gave medical treatment, loans to buy a house or farm or start a new business
Gardens that citizens planted to raise their own vegetables, so that food could be sent to the troops.
Office of War Information
established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort., Organization that employed artists, writers and advertisers to shape public opinion concerning World War II. A big propaganda machine.
a system of allocating scarce goods and services using criteria other than price, Taking items that are in short supply and distributing them according to a system. For instance, during World War II, gas, sugar, and butter were a few of the items rationed in the United States.
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
forced movement of Japanese Americans into camps during WWII
Executive Order 9066
authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066, dated February 19, 1942, gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen from a fifty- to sixty-mile-wide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California and extending inland into southern Arizona.
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans.
People who were born in Japan but immigrated to the U.S.
442nd Regimental Combat Team
was an Asian American unit composed of mostly Japanese Americans; self-sufficient fighting force, and fought with uncommon distinction in Italy, southern France, and Germany.
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Battle of Stalingrad
A 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter; turning point of war in Eastern Europe
June 6, 1944; Americans and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy; this was history's greatest naval invasion.
Battle of the Bulge
Last major German offensive of WWII. It failed.
War Refugee Board
U.S. government agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews
Bataan Death March
April 1942, American soldiers were forced to march 65 miles to prison camps by their Japanese captors. Many of the prisoners died on the way.
Doolittle Air Raid
First air raid by the US to reach the Japanese homeland and was in retaliation for Pearl Harbor. Real material damage in Japan was slight but the success of the raid helped lift American morale at home and helped lead to the attack at Midway which resulted in a siginificant loss for Japan.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
the largest naval engagement in military history in which Japan lost most of its remaining sea power and the ability to defend the Philippines. First of the suicide attacks by Japanese pilots
imported naval battle in the Pacific; strategic position need by US to allow the bombing of Tokyo; more casualities than D-day but Americans won the island, United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima; battle produced some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War II; major island in island hopping campaign
Site of important battle near Japanese mainland; last battle before atomic bombs; Allies won, The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met. Soviet Union agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
An international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. It was founded in 1945 at the signing of the United Nations Charter by 50 countries, replacing the League of Nations, founded in 1919.
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.