6.) Not the Radiologist
7.) Radiation Protection
8.) Ethical / Right to Quality Care
9.) Privacy / Confidentiality
Patient Bill of Rights
1.) Considerate Care
4.) Advance Directive
6.) Confidentiality / Public Health
7.) View Records
8.) Hospital's Response / Patient Request
9.) Business Relationships
10.) Research Studies
11.) Continuity of Care
12.) Hospital Policies
Four Sources of Law
Enforced by federal, state and local legislators.
Issued and enforced by an administrative body.
Resolution of similar or identical legal disputes.
Common Law aka Case Law
It is formulated as an outgrowth of English Common Law.
The root of law in the United States?
Who is held for an employee's negligent act?
What do you call the responsibility of each person for his or her actions?
Tort of Outrage
The subsequently causing of patient emotional distress.
Res Ispa Loquitur
The doctrine that states that the negligent act is obvious or the act speaks for itself.
It is the wrongful act committed against a person or property.
Who is responsible for fulfilling direct duties to patient?
What law is non-criminal?
Unintentional and Intentional
What are the two types of tort?
The type of tort that includes negligent acts and acts of malpractice.
The type of tort that requires a willful action.
The most common type of civil law against health care professionals?
The act of knowing the outcome will be negative and is premeditated is called?
The tort which has no intent to injure or induce distress to the patient but the act was voluntary is called?
Criminal, Civil and Protection for the Radiographer
What are the three liabilities for the radiographer?
Felonies and Misdemeanors
Crimes are subdivided into what two categories?
Plaintiff or Petitioner
What do you call the individual who files a suit for civil law?
Duty, Breach of Duty and Causation and Damage
What are three valid malpractice claims?
Institutional and Personal
What two types of liability protection are there?
What is the injurious or unprofessional treatment to a patient in medicine?
The discipline on dealing of what is good and bad.
Principles refer to what is right and wrong in behavior.
What is the ethical theory that excludes consequences when making moral decisions or performing moral acts. Also known as the "good will" or the non-consequentialism.
Options must be weighed according to the duties that would be fulfilled by performing or not performing each option.
Categories of Duties for Prima Facie
-Beneficence (Doing good.)
-Malfeasance (Doing harm.)
It is the act or action that should be the consequences when deciding what course of action should be taken to solve an ethical problem. It is also known as consequentialism.
Bioethics aka Medical Ethics
This addresses the ethical problems in the medical practice and healthcare. Developed in the 1960's. It is the most morally desirable course of action in the face of conflicting value choices associated with the practice of medicine.
Microethics and Macroethics
The two forms based on healthcare distribution.
It is the relationship between the patient and physician.
It is the decisions based on higher level of authority. It includes the Congress, State Legislature, Private Foundations, Insurance Companies and Healthcare Organizations.
The act of causing fear to another person in the sense of him or her being touched in an offensive, insulting or physically injurious manner.
This is the act of actual harmful or unwarranted and without consent contact with another person. The simple touch with out any kind of permission is already considered this act.
Four Ethical Problems
-Ethical Dilemmas of Justice
-Locus of Authority Issues
One of the ethical problems that has more than one ethical course of action.
Ethical Dilemmas of Justice
One of the ethical problems that includes problems with distribution benefits and burdens on a societal basis.
It is the correct solution but institutional constraints prohibit for being applied.
Locus of Authority Issues
Questions arise to who is responsible or the authority when something fails or happens.
The act of telling the truth.
It is the person's right to decide for his/her own life or choose their own care.
This addresses ethical problem solving as it relates those in the medical "imaging" profession. It consists of six steps.
The Public Law 104-191. Internal Revenue Code 1986.**
April 14, 2003
The compliance date for the HIPAA Privacy rule for all hospitals.
It gives the healthcare professional the right to touch and treat a patient.
Simple and Informed
What are the two types of consent?
The type of consent in which the patient verbally or by action gives consent.
The type of consent in which the patients may agree to medical intervention or refuse it based on information provided by a healthcare professional.
Criminal Act and Criminal Intention
What are the two elements you need to be convicted of a crime?
Hippocrates 460-375 BC
He's a Greek physician who was credited for writing the Hippocratic oath.
Code of Hammurabi 1727 BC
It was formulated in Babylonia. It was the early attempt to regulate medicine for the protection of the patient.
Pythagoras 580-500 BC
He was credited for developing one of the earliest known moral philosophies.
Plato 428-348 BC
He presented the theory that if people act morally, they are happy, and people generally desire happiness. He provided the basis for thought on the influence of morality on human behavior.
Francis Bacon 1561-1626 BC
He divided medicine into three areas: preservation of health, cure of disease and prolongation of life.
Saint Thomas Aquinas 1224 - 1274
He provided an ethical theory based on religion.
Sir Isaac Newton 1643-1727
He applied scientific principles to problem solving which led to scientific rather than moral focus in medicine.
David Hume 1711-1776
He contributed to redirecting ethical theory toward the creation of community associations, the promotion of public health, and the development of national goals to benefit the masses.
Immanuel Kant 1724-1804
He developed deontology which is one of the most common traditional ethical theories.
John Stuart Mill 1806-1873
He developed utilitarianism, a type of teleology, which is the other most common traditional ethical theory.
W. D. Ross 20th Century
He developed rules governing professional behavior based on professional duties. (Prima Facie)
John Rawls 20th Century
He derived a set of principles that provided equal liberty for all while addressing needs of the less fortunate.
It is the following of a specified course toward superiority means and keeping current trends.
The core beliefs that are considered desirable.
Science, Culture, Religion and Experience.
What are the four main sources in which values are derived from?
It is either the positive or negative bearing on how we perceive law.
It is a set of values or customary beliefs.
It influences values on exposure to practices. It also influences the most out of the four main sources of values. It varies from household to household.
It provides structure to personal value system.
Market and Economic Forces
Statutory and Regulatory Mandates
Professional practices changes because of what factors?
Scope of Practice
What are the five standards?
The scope of practice deals with what specifically?
Scope of Practice
It deals with your job and mostly what you need to do.
It is the clinical setting hence the actual job.
Between the technician and the patient.
To test the quality of work, if it is up to par.
Between the technician and the equipment.
It is the act of meeting the standards.
Between the technician and himself.
Act and Rule
These are the two categories of Deontology.
Egoism and Utilitiarianism
The two categories of Teleology.
Social Security Number
Date of Birth
Types of Confidential Information.
Only situations where confidential information may be shared.
Common knowledge or considered public knowledge.
Anything under the FOIA.
Express and Implied
These are the two types of simple consent.
Individual Obligated by Court Order
Type of persons who can issue or give informed consent.
Refraining from self-promotion, avoiding conflicts of interest and resisting economic peer pressure.
Feeling concerned or interest for.
Freedom of Information Act
What does FOIA stand for?