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BIO 275, Ch 4-9, Microbiology Cowan 3rd Ed.

DNA of microorganisms is made up of subunits called

Nucleotides

Base pairs in DNA are held together by ___ bonds.

hydrogen

The enzyme that can proofread replicating DNA, detects incorrect bases, excises them, and correctly replaces them is

DNA polymerase

A permanent, inheritable change in the genetic information is called a

Mutation

A sequence of bases on a gene that does not not code for protein is called an

Intron

Which is incorrect about inducible operons?

have genes turned off by a build up of end product

The lactose repressor___

is inactivated by binding lactose

Bacterial conjugation involves

a donor cell that synthesizes a sex pilus

Which of the following is not a type of bacterial DNA recombination?

Mitosis

The transfer of DNA fragments from a dead cell to live, competent recipient cell that results in a changed recipient cell is ___.

Transformation

A bacteriophage transfers DNA of the previous host to the current host. This is an example of ____.

Transduction

In Griffith's experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae, rough non-encapsulated Streptococci were converted into smooth encapsulated Streptococci in the presence of the heat-killed smooth encapsulated Streptococci. What is the term that describes this process?

Transformation

Repressible operons are normally turned on in the cell.

TRUE

All mutations are not beneficial to the cell.

FALSE

Eukaryotic chromosomes differ from prokaryotic chromosomes because only eukaryotes have ____.

"ALL of the above"
-histone proteins
-chromosomes in a nucleus
-several to many chromosomes
-elongated, not circular, chromosomes

An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs and sunlight for its energy needs would be called a:

Photoautotroph

The term phototroph refers to an organism that:

gets energy from sunlight

The term chemotroph refers to an organism that:

gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that:

are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2

Aerobic respiration is an example of

Chemoheterotrophy

Microorganisms that live in severe habitats, such as very hot, acidic, or salty environments, are called:

extremeophiles

The term facultative refers to:

the ability to exist in a wide range of conditions.

Nutrient absorption is mediated by the:

Cell membrane

An organism with a temperature growth range 45-60 deg C would be called a:

Thermophile

An organism that can exist in both oxygen and oxygen-less environments is a:

Facultative anaerobe

An organism that cannot tolerate an oxygen environment is an:

Obligate anaerobe

The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the

generation time

The phase of bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is:

Stationary phase

The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the:

Lag phase

The phase of the bacterial growth curve that shows the maximum rate of cell division is the:

Log phase

All of the chemical reactions in a cell are called:

Metabolism

Enzymes

Proteins that function as catalysts

Reactants are converted to products by:

Breaking and forming bonds

Each of the following are true of enzymes except:

they increase the activation energy of a reaction (actually decrease it)

During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is:

Oxygen

Enzymes that are always present, regardless of the amount of substrate are:

Constitutive enzymes

Metabolic pathways that regenerate their starting points are called _____ pathways.

Cyclic

Most electron carriers are:

Coenzymes

In addition to electrons, which of the following is also involved in electron transfer?

Hydrogen

All of the following pertain to glycolysis except:

Degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O

In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the:

Cell membrane

As the electron transport carriers shuttle the electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the Proton Motive Force.

Hydrogen ions

In which pathway is the most NADH generated?

Krebs cycle

During which phase of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?

Electron transport

Fermentation..

Requires an organic electron acceptor

Filamentous fungi are called

Molds

Which is not characteristic of fungi?

Photosynthetic

The long thread like branching cells of molds are called

hyphae

The woven, intertwining mass of hyphae that makes up the body of a mold is a

Mycelium

Fungal asexual spores

Are used to identify fungi

What two categories of fungi cause human disease?

Primary and opportunistic

Infections caused by fungi are called mycoses.

TRUE

All fungi have hyphae.

FALSE

In humans, fungi can only infect the skin.

FALSE

All fungi cause some kind of disease in plants and animals.

FALSE

Fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

TRUE

Host cells of viruses include:

humans and animals, plants and fungi, bacteria, protozoa, and algae

Viruses:

Cannot be seen in a light microscope

Viral capsids are made from subunits called:

Capsomeres

Viral nucleic acids include which of the following:

Double or single stranded DNA, double or single stranded RNA

The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is:

Adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, release

Host range is limited by:

Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane

The envelope of enveloped viruses is

Obtained by a viral budding or exocytosis

Viruses attach to their hosts via:

Host glycoproteins

The process of dissolving the envelope and capsid to release the viral nucleic acid is:

Uncoating

Which of the following occurs during assembly?

Nucleocapsid is formed and viral spikes insert in host cell membrane

Persistent viruses that can reactivate periodically are:

Chronic latent viruses

What structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors?

Tail fibers

The event that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is:

Injection of only the viral nucleic acid into the host cell

Lysogeny refers to?

Viral genome inserting into bacterial host chromosome

Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called:

Bacteriophages

A common method for cultivating viruses in the lab is to use in vitro systems called ____ cultures.

Cell

A ____ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core.

Capsid

The core of every virus particle always contains?

Either DNA or RNA

In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell's ____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell's __.

Nucleus, cytoplasm

Which of the following is not true of the outer membrane?

Gram positive bacteria have an outer membrane

The function of bacterial endospores is

Protection of genetic material during harsh conditions

Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes?

Tetrad

The outcome of the Gram stain is based on differences in the cell's

Cell wall

The cell envelope or its parts can interact with human tissue and cause disease

TRUE

All bacterial cells have

One or more chromosomes

Syphillis is caused by a spirochete called:

Treponema pallidum

Gram negative bacteria do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

FALSE

A prokaryotic cell wall that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid is

Gram positive

Peptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial

Cell walls

The cell _____ can be composed of three layers: the membrane, the cell wall and the outer membrane.

Envelope

Which of the following species of bacteria is not closely related to the others?

Escherichia coli

Which structure protects bacteria from being phagocytized?

Capsule

Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of

Gram negative bacteria

Which of the following is not a bacterial class involved in causing human and animal diseases?

Archaebacteria

Bacterial endospores are not produced by

Staphylococcus

The most immediate result of destruction of a cell's ribosomes would be

Protein synthesis would stop

The enzyme _____, that is found in tears and saliva, can hydrolyze the bonds in the glycan chains of certain bacterial cell walls.

Lysozyme

The two functions of bacterial appendages are

Attachment and motility

Plasmids

Are often the site of pathogenic genes

The prokaryotic cell membrane is a site for many enzymes and metabolic reactions.

TRUE

Halobacterium salinarium lives in and requires salt to grow. This is an example of an archaeabacterium described as a(n) __.

Halophile

The chemical components of ribosomes are proteins and

rRNA

The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called

Sex pili

The term that refers to the presence of flagella all over the cell surface is

Peritrichous

Both gram-positive and gram-negative cells have outer membranes.

FALSE

Movement of a cell toward a chemical stimulus is termed

Chemotaxis

The site/s for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is/are the

Cell membrane

Two major structures that allow bacteria to adhere to surfaces are ___ and ___.

Fimbrae, capsules

Lysozyme is most effective against

Gram positive organisms

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