Meteorology Exam 2

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Mixing Ratio

The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a given volume (parcel) of air to the mass of the remaining dry air describes the

a relatively large number of water vapor molecules in the air

A high water vapor pressure indicates:

higher water temperature in the Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf Coast states are more humid in summer than the coastal areas of Southern California mainly because of the:

taking a shower and letting the air circulate through the home

Which of the following will increase the relative humidity in a home during the winter?

the level of the water in the glass would not change

If a glass of water were surrounded by saturated air:

relative humidity

The percentage of water vapor present in the air compared to that required for saturation is the

at the time when the air temperature is lowest

The time of day when the relative humidity reaches a maximum value is usually:

decrease

As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the relative humidity will

more, lower

Suppose saturated polar air has an air temperature and dew point of -10o C, and unsaturated desert air has an air temperature of 35o C and a dew point of 10o C. The desert air contains ____ water vapor and has a ____ relative humidity than the polar air.

dew point temperature

The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated is the:

remain the same

As the air temperature increases, with no addition of water vapor to the air, the dew point will

dew point temperature

Which of the following is the best indicator of the actual amount of water vapor in the air?

at saturation, latent heat of condensation is released into the air

Nighttime temperatures rarely drop below the dew point temperature because

when the air temperature is highest

At what time of day is the relative humidity normally at a minimum?

increase, decrease

If very cold air is brought indoors and warmed with no change in its moisture content, the saturation vapor pressure of this air will ____ and the relative humidity of this air will ____.

Relative Humidity

Which of the following will increase in a rising parcel of air?

increase, increase

If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ____ the dew point and ____ the relative humidity.

Decreases

As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity:

there is more water vapor in the air in Arizona

In a blinding snowstorm in Vermont the air temperature and dew-point temperature are both 30o F. Meanwhile, under clear skies in Arizona, the air temperature is 85o F and the dew point temperature is 38 degrees F. From this information you could conclude:

35 mb

If water vapor comprises 3.5% of an air parcel whose total pressure is 1000 mb, the water vapor pressure would be:

True

The dew point temperature is a measure of the total amount of water vapor in the air.

40 degrees F

At 40o F, the atmosphere is saturated with water vapor. If the air temperature increases to 60o F, with no addition or removal of water vapor, one may conclude that the dew point is about:

Increases

As the air temperature increases, the air's capacity for water vapor:

Decreases

As the difference between the air temperature and the dew point increases, the relative humidity:

Higher than before

Suppose the dew point of cold outside air is the same as the dew point of the air indoors. If the door is opened and cold air replaces some of the warm air, then the new relative humidity indoors would be:

Radiational Cooling

The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of:

Frost Forms When:

objects on the ground cool below the dew point temperature, the dew point is 32o F or below, and water vapor changes into ice without first becoming a liquid (all of the above)

clear winter night with a slight breeze

Radiation fog forms best on a:

Advection Fog

The fog that forms along the Pacific coastline of North America is mainly this type:

Can be above or below freezing

When you see your breath on a cold morning the air temperature:

Seed the fog with dry ice

A reasonably successful method of dispersing cold fog is to:

This is and incorrect association

altostratus -- high cloud

cirrostratus clouds are present

A halo around the moon means that:

Nimbostratus

Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with ____ clouds.

Noctilucent

Which of the following cloud types would be found at the highest elevation above the earth's surface?

Ice Particles

Cirrus clouds are composed primarily of:

altocumulus

A middle cloud that sometimes forms in parallel waves or bands is:

Cumulonimbus

An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with:

Cumulonimbus

Hail is usually associated with what cloud?

a way of determining cloud thickness and altitude

Infrared and visible satellite photographs might provide:

it is very cold, it is very warm and humid, and the addition of water vapor from your breath causes the air's relative humidity to exceed 100% (All of the above)

Exhaled breath from your mouth can condense when:

Incorrect Association

cumulus congestus -- anvil top

Stratocumulus

In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the lowest base?

Cirrostratus

Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow. From this you conclude that the cloud type must be:

Cumulonimbus

As Apollo 12 ascended into the atmosphere, the height of the surrounding clouds was noted to be 42,000 feet. A lightning stroke was seen within these clouds, indicating that they must have been:

Scattered

Which term below describes a situation in which clouds cover between one-tenth and five-tenths of the sky?

Emitted Infrared Light

Satellite photographs taken of clouds at night use:

Geostationary satellites:

orbit the earth once each day, remain above a fixed spot above the equator, and are placed in higher orbits than most polar orbiting satellites (All of the above).

Satellites can:

monitor the amount of snow cover, provide information about the earth-atmosphere energy balance, provide information about surface water temperatures, monitor the movement of icebergs (All of the above)

Polar orbiting satellites:

on each successive orbit view an area to the west of the previous orbit

For Frozen Dew to Form:

the dew point must be above freezing, the minimum temperature must fall to freezing or below, and dew must form and then freeze (All of the above).

From the bottom up

When radiation fog "burns off", the fog tends to dissipate:

Evaporation (mixing) Fog

Which fog does not necessarily form in air that is cooling?

Cirrocumulus

Which cloud is least likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?

Altostratus

A dim, "watery" sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of ____ clouds.

Cumulonimbus

The name given to a towering cloud that has not fully developed into a thunderstorm is

Cirrocumulus

If a cloud appears white in a visible satellite photograph and white in an infrared picture, then the cloud could be:

15o C

If the environmental lapse rate is 5o C per 1000 m and the temperature at the earth's surface is 25o C, then the air temperature at 2000 m above the ground is:

Stable

If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it falls back to its original position, the atmosphere is said to be.

an adiabatic process

A rising parcel of air that does not exchange heat with its surroundings is an example of

Stable

Most thunderstorms do not extend very far into the stratosphere because the air in the stratosphere is:

Colder, More

An inversion represents an extremely stable atmosphere because air that rises into the inversion will eventually become ____ and ____ dense than the surrounding air.

11o C per 1000 m

Which of the following environmental lapse rates would represent the most unstable atmosphere in a layer of unsaturated air?

stable, unstable

A conditionally unstable atmosphere is ____ with respect to unsaturated air and ____ with respect to saturated air.

Cumulonimbus

Which cloud type below would most likely form in an unstable atmosphere?

air motions caused by subsidence

Which of the following is not a way of producing clouds?

Thermals

Soaring birds in flight, like hawks and eagles, often indicate the presence of

Lenticular clouds

Which of the following cloud types would commonly be found downwind of a mountain:

False

T/F Sinking air sometimes cools adiabatically

Increases

Subsidence ____ stability

Saturation

Conditional instability depends on the condition of

moist adiabatic lapse rate

The rate at which the temperature changes inside a rising (or descending) parcel of saturated air is called the:

the fact that latent heat is released by a rising parcel of saturated air

The difference between the "moist" and "dry" adiabatic rates is due to:

it determines the vertical motion of air

A knowledge of air stability is important because:

cool the surface and warm the air aloft

Which set of conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most stable?

high, sinking

Subsidence inversions are best developed with ____ pressure areas because of the ____ air motions associated with them

An Inversion

Which of the following conditions would be described as the most stable?

air temperature 35 oC, dew point 10 oC

Which of the following set of surface conditions would produce a convective cumulus cloud with the highest base?

Convection

The vertical motion of air caused by sun heating the ground is called:

10o C colder than at the surface

If a parcel of unsaturated air with a temperature of 30o C rises from the surface to an altitude of 1000 m, the unsaturated parcel temperature at this altitude would be about:

Stratus

Which cloud type would most likely form in absolutely stable air?

greater, less

In a conditionally unstable atmosphere, the environmental lapse rate will be ____ than the moist adiabatic rate and ____ than the dry adiabatic rate.

Unstable

If an air parcel is given a small push upward and it continues to move upward on its own accord, the atmosphere is said to be:

Have higher cloud bases

If you were to take a trip during the summer from Ohio to Nevada, you would most likely observe that afternoon cumulus clouds ____ as you travel west.

False

The environmental lapse rate is almost always the same as the adiabatic lapse rate.

Increases the environmental lapse rate

Cold advection at higher altitudes, and daytime solar heating

small droplets evaporate more quickly than large droplets

What best describes the curvature effect?

the number of ice crystals in the cloud

Which of the following is not an important factor in the production of rain by the collision-coalescence process?

Coalescence

The merging of liquid cloud droplets by collision is called:

cumulonimbus cloud

If rain falls on one side of a street and not on the other side, the rain most likely fell from a:

Glaciated

When only ice crystals exist in a cloud, the cloud is said to be:

Greater than

At the same sub-freezing temperature, the saturation vapor pressure just above a liquid water surface is ____ the saturation vapor pressure above an ice surface:

Virga

Rain which falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground is referred to as:

snow is a good insulator

Which below best describes why a fluffy covering of snow is able to protect sensitive plants and their root systems from damaging low temperatures.

moist, near

The largest snowflakes would probably be observed in ____ air whose temperature is ____ freezing

freezing rain

Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?

a hailstone

Precipitation with the greatest size (diameter) is:

amount of energy reflected back to a transmitter

Radar gathers information about precipitation in clouds by measuring the:

one hundred times larger

A typical raindrop is about ____ a typical cloud droplet

Drizzle

The lightest form of rain is?

water droplets dissolve hygroscopic nuclei and condensation can occur at relative humidities less than 100 percent

What best describes the solute effect?

a thick, warm cumulus cloud

Which cloud type below will only produce precipitation by the collision-coalescence process?

liquid droplets observed at temperatures below 0 oC (32 oF)

Supercooled cloud droplets are:

fall streaks

Snowflakes or ice crystals falling from high cirriform clouds are called:

moist air and temperatures near freezing

Large, heavy snowflakes are associated with:

freezing rain

Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?

A trace

An amount of precipitation measured to be less than one hundredth of an inch (0.25 mm) is called:

rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow

In a typical advancing winter storm, which of the following sequences of precipitation types is most likely to occur?

Size

The main difference between a cloud drop and a raindrop is its:

Solute Effect

Condensation onto hygroscopic nuclei is possible at relative humidities less than 100 percent due to the:

faster, greater

Large raindrops fall ____ than smaller raindrops, and have a ____ terminal velocity than small raindrops.

thick, strong

If you observe large raindrops hitting the ground, you could probably say that the cloud overhead was ____ and had ____ updrafts.

ice crystals grow larger at the expense of the surrounding liquid cloud droplets

During the ice crystal process of rain formation:

-40 oC (-40 oF)

The temperature at which you would expect a cloud to become completely glaciated is

Accretion

The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called:

Sublimate

Fall streaks usually ____ before reaching the ground.

1 inch

On average, the water equivalent of 10 inches of snow is about ____ inches of water.

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