Symptoms of elevated pulmonary vein pressuress (dyspnea, orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea) indicate what?
What test confirms the diagnosis of pulmonary congestion?
ACE Inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Spironolactone
What 3 drugs have been shown to decrease mortality in patients with heart failure caused by systolic dysfunction?
Sick Sinus Syndrome
What syndrome exists if there is an absence of a P wave (due to Sinus arrest or Sinus exit block)?
2nd Degree Heart Block Type I (Wenckebach)
Progresssively lengthened PR intervals followed by an eventual dropped QRS is characteristic of what?
2nd Degree Heart Block Type II (indicates infranodal disease)
A sudden dropped beat without any warning is characteristic of what?
3rd Degree Heart Block
No relationship between the P waves and the QRS complex (variable PR interval) is characteristic of what?
1st Degree Heart Block
A prolonged PR interval is characteristic of what?
A patient presenting with A-fib and a regular ventricular response should be suspected of what?
What is the emergent treatment for Bradycardia causing hypotension, CHF or Cardiogenic Syncope?
Beta Blockers and ICD Placement
What is the treatment for V-Tach?
Warfarin and Cardioversion
What is the treatment for A-Fib?
Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia with 2:1 block or nonparoxysmal junctional tachycardia is characteristic of what?
WPW Syndrome (Wolf-Parkinson-White)
A short PR interval, delta wave and AVRT (Atrioventricular Reentry Tachycardia) are characteristic of what?
AV Nodal Blocking Agents (Long-term management with radiofrequency ablation)
What is the initial treatment for AVRT and AVNRT (AV Reentry Tachycardia and AV Nodal Reentry Tachycardia)?
Mg and Overdrive Pacing (Phenytoin)
What is the treatment for Torsades de Pointes?
What is the drug of choice to treat regular narrow complex tachycardias after vagal maneuvers have been unsuccessful?
Hypertension is BP greater than what?
What is the target blood pressure for patients with uncomplicated hypertension?
What is the target blood pressure for patients with renal failure, heart failure or diabetes?
What is the target blood pressure for patients iwth proteinuria or microalbuminuria?
A systolic crescendo decrescendo at the upper sternal border is characteristic of what?
A decrescendo diastolic blowing murmur parasternally is characteristic of what?
A diastolic rumble at the apex is characteristic of what?
A holosystolic apical murmur that radiates to the axilla is characteristic of what?
Degenerative Valve Disease
What is the most common cause of Valvular heart disease in adults?
Stenotic Valvular Lesions lead to what?
Regurgitant Valvular Lesions lead to what?
What is the most common cause of noncoronary circulation?
What is the most common symptom of Chronic Arterial Occlusive Disease?
Thrombolysis or Surgical Revascularization
What is the treatment for acute arterial occlusion?
Emergent Surgical Repair
What is the treatment for symptomatic aortic aneurysms?
Emergent Surgical Repair
What is the treatment for Acute Aortic dissection?
Symptomatic with >70% occlusion (Or asymptomatic with >60% occlusion)
What are the indications for carotid endarterectomy?
Nifedipine (Short acting dihydropyridines)
What drug should never be used in Acute MI?
UFH (Unfractionated heparin)
What drug is given in patients with NSTEMI or UA (unstable angina) to prevent progression of thrombus formation?
What occurs when hydrostatic pressure of the pulmonary capillaries excees the pulmonary capillary oncotic pressure?
BNP > 100
What test suggests that dyspnea is due to CHF?
Hyperkalemia and Gynecomastia
What are 2 common side effects of Spironolactone?
What treatment should be given if a symptomatic bradycardia is not resolved on its own or in response to atropine?
Complete heart block with symptoms, Sinus node dysfunction with symptoms, and Bifascicular block with intermittent type II second degree AV block are indications for what?
Asymptomatic Sinus Node Dysfunction
When are Pacemakers not indicated?
What is the most common cause of Tachycardia?
What is the emergent treatment of a patient with systemic shock?
What is the emergent treatment for a patient with septic shock?
IV Fluids (Must treat underlying cause)
What should be avoided in patients with cardiopulmonary shock?
How can the sensitivity and specificity of excercise testing be increased?
What is the gold standard to diagnose coronary artery disease?
Hours to Days
How soon does an ST segment elevation in AMI usually resolve?
What is the pathophysiology of most cases of heart failure?