Most of the actual exploration of the Pacific Ocean was carried out by the...
The most prosperous country in Europe in the 17th century was...
What was a key difference between the Portuguese approach to trading -post empires and the approach taken by the Dutch and the English?
The Portuguese wanted military control while the Dutch and English wanted to establish trading posts.
What common goal(s) did the Dutch and the Spanish have in southeast Asia?
-To dominate trade in the region.
-Seeking for converts to Christianity and trade with more countries
Why is the Seven Year's War significant in this era, 1500-1800?
It put Britain in a position to trade.
-made britain dominant
Which is New World crops added the most calories to European diets and therefore positively impacted sustainable population numbers?
How did the European mariners of the 15th and 19th centuries use the westerly winds of the western hemisphere differently than the Indian Ocean mariners used the monsoons?
European mariners used the westerly winds to travel to the new world while Indian Ocean mariners depended on windwheels.
What problems did Martin Luther have with the Roman Catholic Church?
Pluralism, church was rich, Absentism, and sale of indulgences
The religious struggle in the Dutch provinces finally resulted in...
A geographical split between the protestant north and the catholic south
Why did Charles V fail to build a centralized, sovereign state in the Holy Roman Empire?
-Due to pressure from French and Ottoman empire, internal religious tensions, German nobles failed to bend to his will
-Numerous domestic and Foreign problems
What were the components of Peter the Great's policy of westernization?
- Ordered men to shave their beards, education (mathematics), reform
When Martin Luther objected to the Catholic church, what was his original issue?
Sale of indulgences
Why was Charles V ultimately unable to strengthen the Holy Roman Empire?
Too many religious and political problems
The most successful absolute monarchs arguably were Louis XIV of France and Peter the Great of Russia. What dd they have in common?
Engaged in huge building projects to gain prestige
What is the best explanation for Isaac Newton's importance to the scientific revolution?
It provided an explanation of the systematic organization of the universe
In the English colonies a higher percentage of women settlers ensured that the migrants mainly married among themselves. This situation is similar to what Spanish and Portuguese colonial era?
The first plentiful labor force for North America was...
What methods of resistance to Spanish rule were employed by the native populations of the Americas?
Rebellion, halfhearted work, hiding from the Spanish in mountains and forests, faking illness
Why were Cortes and Pizarro able to defeat the Aztecs and the Incas?
The production of what cash crop dramatically increased the Portuguese interest in Brazil after 1550?
What do the encomienda, mita, and debt peonage have in common?
economic systems to provide labor for spanish seers
Why did Christian missionaries have greater success at conversion of indigenous peoples of Mexico and Peru, than in the North American colonies?
The people of Mexico and Peru were in settled concentrate communities
What is the connection between the reconquista and the encomienda system?
-the encomienda was during the reconquista period
-to get labor from defeated moors
Throughout the entire period of trans-Atlantic slavery, the mortality rate for the middle passage was...
By 1800, the population of sub-Saharan Africa stood at...
As part of the triangular slave trade, the Europeans usually picked up slaves in Africa in exchange for...
What was the key to domination of Songhay's rulers such as Sunni Ali's?
Administrative and Military Organization
Why did the Portuguese slave trade move down the coast of Angola?
-The Portuguese were looking for better profit than Kongo.
-Portuguese merchants sought high value merchandise such as copper, ivory, and most of all slaves. the people of this area traded these things for textiles, weapons, advisors, and artisans.
How do historians account for the fact that despite the pressures of the Atlantic slave trade, west Africa's population continued to grow?
Changes in diet prolonged the life of many Africans
What happened to African culture in the western hemisphere?
African slaves blended their African traditions with other African and European ones
What was the most significant reason for the decline in slavery as a labor system?
It became more profitable to use wage labor
In The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven, Mateo Ricci argued that _?_
Doctrines of Jesus were similar to those of Confucius
The term "native learning" refers to _?_
-growing Japanese tradition
China fell behind technologically during the Ming and Qing dynasties because _?_
Ming and Qing regimes favored political and social stability over technological progress
The process known as "thinning out the rice shoots" refers to _?_
Infanticide- the killing of the first born child
What were the effects of the peace of the Tokugawa period?
-Cultural growth,unity and homoseneity
-increased agricultural production,
population growth, undermined social position of ruling elites
What popular novel dealt with the intrigue following the collapse of the Han dynasty?
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Which group is more responsible for bringing social change to China during the Qing era and to Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate?
The merchant class
The use of mandarins who traveled throughout China overseeing the implementation of Ming imperial dictates is most comparable to which non_Chinese imperial institution?
-Charlemagne's Nicidomentri Doctrine
In which area of governance did the influence of the Mongols on the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires prove to be the most problematic?
Getting a successor to the throne.
What factor produced large population increases in Mughal India but was missing in the other empires?
Intensive agriculture along traditional lines
What was the most important factor in making the world trade network less influential in the Mughal empire?
Huge manufacturing capacities
To what can attribute the vast expansion and continued control of Ottoman territories into southern Europe and northern Africa?
Organized military conquest/ruler-ship
What role did religious tolerance play in the Mughal empire?
Early rulers showed little interest in conversion, but later rulers became so focused on it that they persecuted other religions
When comparing the domain of the Mughals with that of earlier states controlled by Muslim conquerors, what was the largest difference?
-Huge armies had little success in conquering Africa.
-the earlier states were more readily connected to world trade
The last country to abolish slavery was...
What is cultural nationalism? Theodor Herzl's Zionism was the direct result of...
Study of Language, history countries, collecting folktales, and anti-semitisnm
In which place(s) was slavery ended with revolution rather than by government decree?
Which multinational empire provided the greatest impediment to Italian and German unification?
Holy Roman Empire
What did victory in the Seven Years' War ensure?
It ensured Britain would dominate global trade and that British possessions would prosper
The advent of steam power enabled increased production and efficiency but in which business was steam power the slowest to develop?
How did other European and American entrepreneurs gain the knowledge to mechanize?
Espionage or Spy
According to Marx and Engels, the final end to a class revolution would result in...
Eliminated need of Government
Which component of the age of proto-industrialization became a key asset for industrialization?
-cotton as significant cash crop
In Latin America, the road to a stable state was hindered by...
Sharp divisions of Creole Classes
What event shifted the population ratio in Canada from predominately French to predominately British-speaking residents?
American Revolutionary War
What was the universal goal of the Latin American reform movements of the 19th century?
land distribution and reform
In which industry were Asian migrants to Latin America in the mid-19th century most likely to work?
Sugar & Cotton
The chief victim of late 19th century European imperialistic expansion was the continent of
When comparing the early successes of the Qing dynasty under Kangxi with its 19th century failures, which place and time had the most similar pattern?
France, 14th century
What was the role of the military in the gradual decline of the Ottoman empire?
Effectiveness of the central government; resisted modernization
What is the best example of the extreme extent of the Qing reaction to the domination of foreigners?
The Boxer Rebellion
What key decision did the Meiji government make that changed the longstanding social order in Japan?
The government took away land and abolished samurai class
Why was Cecil Rhodes so interested in controlling Cape Colony?
Rhodes wanted to use the Cape Colony as a base of operations for the extension of British command to all of Africa
The Suez Canal was constructed to reduce travel time between what two locations?
india and england
What was the ultimate outcome of the Sepoy Rebellion?
establishment of direct imperial rule of india
The term "Great Game" is applied to...
Struggle between British/Russia military struggle for control over Asia
African colonies where European personnel collected taxes, maintained order, and organized labor and military recruitment were run under which system?
Scientific racism drew on whose works to support its premise that Europeans were intellectually, culturally, and morally superior to all other peoples?
What was the Indian National Congress originally formed?
As a forum of educated Indians to talk to officials
"Sir, many of our people, keenly desirous of the wares and things of your Kingdoms, which are brought here by your people, and in order to satisfy their voracious appetite, seize many of our people, freed and exempt men, and they kidnap even nobles, and the sons of nobles, and our relatives, and take them to be sold to the Whites who are in our Kingdoms." This quotation comes from a 1526 letter to a European monarch from a king located...
On the western coast of Africa (Kongo)
Between 1500 and 1800, why were Europeans primarily interested in tropical colonies in the Atlantic and Indians Oceans and in the Caribbean?
Large profits could be made from products like sugar, coffee, and pepper
Why was Japan more successful than China in resisting imperialist encroachments in the 19th century?
they allowed reform
What policy led to radicalization in both the French Revolution after 1789 and the Russian Revolution after 1917?
Peasants came to power
What is extraterritoriality?
Exemption of foreigners from the laws of the country in which they live (Immunity from local law)
What did anticolonial movements such as the Congress Party in India and the Young Turks agree on?
Need for reform in order to resist european imperialism
What is the best description of relations between European states and the Ottoman Empire in the period 1815 to 1914?
Russian, English, and French expansion came at the expense of the Ottomans.
Between 1600 and 18000, what was common about the policies of China, Korean, and Japan with regard to contact with foreigners?
All had policies that regulated interactions with foreigners
What is the best characterization of world trade in the period 1450 - 1750?
Demand for Asian commodities, financed by silver from Americans
In 19th century liberal democratic theory, a woman's role was generally portrayed as...
The Mother of citizens
Slavery and serfdom were abolished in the 1860's in _?_ and _?_
United States and Russia
Rebellious ethnic minorities in the Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian Empires during the late 19th century were motivated primarily by ____ism.
What did the policies of the Meiji reformers bring about in Japan?
Promote rapid industrial revolution (industry)
According to most world historians, what was the key to European predominance in the world economy during the 19th and early 20th century?
The United States Bill of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen reflect a shared concern for _?_
Protection of private property
In the late 19th century, European imperialism in BOTH Africa and China was characterized by _?_
Competition among imperialist powers
What was the overall effect of skin color, ethnicity, and former slave status in Latin America in the 19th century?
There continued to be discrimination on the basis of all three factors
By 1914, what was true of BOTH Russian and Japanese economies?
Rapid, state sponsored industrialization had occurred in both countries.