Chief Justice John Marshal
Appointed in 1801 and served until 1835, helped increase power of court
authority to hear certain cases
Both federal and state courts have jurisdiction
The court in which a case is originally tried, also uses original jurisdiction
If a person who loses a case in a trial wishes to appeal a decision, he or she may take the case to a court with...
people engaged in a lawsuit, to come before them
Marbury v. Madison
most celebrated decision in American history.Secured for the court the power to review acts of Congress-- the power of judicial review. (pg 337 and 307 should probably study up on this)
Power to review acts of congress
nominated by president andrew jackson as chief justice when john marshall died in 1835. During his 8 years in office, he named 6 justices to supreme court
due process clause
this clause says no state may deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
separate but equal doctrine
held that if facilities for both races were equal, they could be separate. This ruling would not be overturned until brown v. board of education of topeka in 1954
These courts include the federal district courts, the federal courts of appeals, and the United States Court of International Trade.
created in 1789 to serve as trial courts. Followed state boundary lines.
includes 16 to 23 people, hears charges against a person suspected of having committed a crime.
if grand jury believes there is sufficient evidence to bring the person to trial, it issues an
a trial jury that consists of 6 or 12 people, that weighs the evidence presented at a trial and renders a verdict
United States marshal
carries out such duties as making arrests, securing jurors, and keeping order in the courtroom
a region containing a united states appellate court
United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Federal Court
Hears cases from federal claims court, the court of international trade, the united states patent office, and other executive agencies.
a court created to help congress exercise its power
a system in which the president submits the name of a candidate for judicial appointment to the senators from the candidate's state before formally submitting it for full senate approval
riding the circuit
traveling to hold court in their assigned region of country
a written explanation of supreme court decision; also, in some states, a written interpretation of a state constitution or state laws by the state's attorney general
headed a special commission that investigated the assassination of president kennedy
American Bar Association
largest national organization of attorneys,they're role is solely to evaluate the professional qualifications of candidates for all Article III judicial positions--the supreme court, the united states courts of appeals, and the United States District Courts
National Organization for Women
Opposes a nominee who is considered to be against women's rights.
writ of certiorari
an order from the court to a lower court to send up the records on a case for review
per curiam opinion
a brief unsigned statement of the court's decision
a written statement setting forth the legal arguments, relevant facts, and precedents supporting one side of a case
"friend of the court"-- briefs, they come from individuals, interest groups, or government agencies claiming to have information useful to the Court's consideration of the case
all justices vote the same way
expresses the views of the majority of the justices on a case.
One or more justices who agree with the majority's conclusions about a case, but do so for different reasons, write a...
an opinion of justices on the losing side in the case
Charles Evens Hughes
Court does change its mind on issues, a dissenting opinion may even become the majority opinion on a similar issue many years later, ................. expressed this in a frequently quoted defense of disenting opinion.
refuse to spend, money congress has appropriated
Miranda v. Arizona
court ruled that police had acted unconstitutionally and had violated a suspect's right. brought major changes in law enforcement policies and procedures across the nation. (pg 337)
a latin term that means "let the decision stand"
model, on which to base other decisions in similar cases
a ruling on a law or action that has not been challenged
coalitions of justices, exist on the court on certain kinds of issues
the deciding vote
Plessy v. Ferguson
in 1896 upheld the louisiana law as constitutional (pg 346)
Brown v. Board of education of topeka
court heard a challenge to its 56 year old interpretation of the 14th amendment. In 1954 the court ruled unanimously that separate but equal education facilities were unconstitutional