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Urinary System

acute glomerulonephritis

AKA nephrocalcinosis, or Brights Disease. immunological reaction that can follow streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract or middle ear. Affects the nephrons. Microscopic deposits of antigens are the gold standard for diagnosing this. radiographically the kidneys appear larger than normal & is treated with diuretics

adenocarcinoma

most common malignant tumor of the kidney, 2x more in males & increased after age 40. Unknown cause, & linked to chronic inflammation from cigarette smoking.

bladder carcinoma

3x more common in males, after age 50. The cause is related to cigarette smoking & coffee, & painless hematuria is a symptom.

bladder diverticula

a pouch in the wall of the urinary bladderr, may be congenital or caused by chronic inflammation. middle aged men. bladder may have to be surgically reconstructed.

bladder trabeculae

a symptom of cystitis. Its the roughening of the normally smmooth bladder wall.

Bright's disase

AKA acute glomerulonephritis or nephrocalcinosis. inflammatory reaction to the renal parenchyma caused by an antigen antibody reaction in the glomeruli.

Crossed ectopy

when one kidney lies across the body midline & is fused to the other kidney. 2nd most common fusion anomaly.

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder. burning pain on urination. may be acute or chronic.

ectopic kidney

a kidney that is out of its normal position, usually lower than normal.

foley catheter

catheter used in cystography for the injection of contrast media. has a balloon at the end to hold in place.

horseshoe kidney

most common fusion anomally. lower poles of kidney are joined across the midline by a band of soft tissue.

hydronephrosis

obstructive disease of the urinary system that causes a dilation of the renal pelvis & calyces with urine. most common cause is calculus, blockage or a congenital defect.

hyperplasia

overdevelopment of one kidney. associated with renal agenesis or hypoplasia of the other kidney.

hypoplasia

under development of one kidney. Associated with hyperplasia of the other kidney.

malrotation

incomplete or excessive rotation of the kidneys as they ascend from the pelvis in utero.

medullary sponge kidney

congenital dilation of the renal tubules leading to urinary stasis & increased elvels of calcium phosphate.

nephroblastoma

malignant renal tumor found in 1/13,500 births. can be felt as an abdominal mass. 80% cure rate.

nephroptosis

kidney prolapse. in long/lean/athletic individuals, the kidney is mobile and may drop toward the pelvis. a long ureter distinguishes it from congenital pelvic kidney.

nephrosclerosis

the thickening of small vessels of the kidney.

nephrostomy tube

connects the renal pelvis to the outside of the body to allow urine to drain.

neurogenic bladder

dysfunction caused by interference w/ the nerve impulses concerned with urination.

polycystic kidney disease

tiny cysts in the nephron present at birth. results in childhood renal failure.

pyelonephritis

The most common renal disease. Bacteria infection of the calyces & renal pelvis.

pyuria

Pus in the urine. the bodies reaction to infection.

renal agenesis

rare, the absence of the kidney on one side. Usually a large kidney on the other side.

renal calculi

stones that develop from urine. Caused by metabolic disorders, excessive calcium & chronic UTI's.

renal colic

intermittent pain from the movement of stones.

renal cyst

a benign cyst normally found in the lower pole of the kidney.

renal failure

the end result of a chronic process. loss of glomerular filteration, breakdown of the parenchyma. Uremia is present, & dialysis & transplantation is needed.

staghorn ccalculus

large calculus that assumes the entire shape of the pelvicaliceal junction.

supernumerary kidney

rare. presence of a small 3rd kidney. Has no parenchymal attachment. can become infected.

suprapubic catheter

a long term use catheter. Usually in quadrplegics.

uremia

blood in the urine.

ureteral diverticula

outpouchings in the ureter. congenital.

ureteral stents

surgically placed stent in the ureter to treat ureteral obstruction. enables urine to flow normally.

ureterocele

cystlike dilation of a ureter near its opening into the bladder. a filling defect with a "cobra head" appearance.

urethral valves

presence of mucosal folds that protrude into the posterior urethra, can cause obstruction.diagnosed by voiding cytourethrography.

urinary meatus

the urethral opening to the exterior of the body.

urinary tract infection

UTI. most common of all bacterial infections. caused by bacteria invading up the urethra to the bladder.

vesicoureteral reflux

a backward flow of urine out of the bladder into the ureters caused by an incompetent ureteral valve.

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