Divination, Ousia, and Energiai
Council of Florence
Largely dealt with the issue of the procession of the holy spirit, especially with the phrase "filioque". It mainly concluded that "from" the son and "through" the son must be the same thing.
Procession of the Holy Spirit
Since Christ was "begotten" from the Father, figuring out where the Holy Spirit came from was rather difficult. The Council of Constantinople in 381, however, adopted a creed that stated that the Holy Spirit proceeded from the Father, even though many people did not know what that meant.
Trinitarian Unity, East v. West
Eastern theologians believed that the source of unity was the Father, with the Son and the Spirit coming forth from the Father in their own specific ways. In the West, however, they believed the Spirit was the center of Trinitarian unity, as the spirit represented love and that love is what binds that Father and Son together.
this means "and the Son" and they added this on to the creed that stated the Spirit proceeded from the Father
East/West ultimate authority
Radical Evil (Stealing Pears)
This is liking evil simply for the sake of it being evil, it serves no practical purpose, has no ultimate motive save not being the right thing to do.
Manicheans and Augustine
Augustine found their appeal to reason much more inviting than Christianity, though he found contradictions in their theories. Their main belief was that in two Gods, and their main bishop Faustus was much less intelligent than Augustine expected.
The Donatist Controversy
They focused on the belief of the unity of the church, and agreed with a lot of Tertulian theology. Donatists, though, ended up being kind've off with the rest of the group, and their belief that the sin of the priest invalidated his actions, then their is a large responsiblity of his integrity, when it should be on his ordination, not virtue.
The Pelagian Controversy
Augustine and the City of God
Augustine said that since time, there has been a city of man, and a city of God, where those who love God dwell. Those who belong to the City of God love all things in the world, but they love God first.
Monasticism and Josh Cassian
Gottschalk and the Council of Quiery (853 a.d.)
Gottschalk pushed predestination to its limits, and argued that some were destined to sin, some righteous, Christ only died for some, and we can do nothing about it. The Council of Quiery ended up condemning him, acknowledging that Christ died for all. He ended up being sent to prison, but would be let out every now and then to see how he was doing, but he would always still preach Augustine even more.
Radbertus, Ratramnus, and the Eucharist
Radbertus firmly believed that the bread and wine literally became the body of Jesus, the same body that died on the cross. Ratramnus believed, however, in basically symbolism, that we do not literally eat his body, as it would have been used up by now, but we eat it spiritually, not materially. Ultimately, the Fourth Lateran Council declared the doctrine of transubstantiation, that what we eat becomes the body, it retains its properites, but the substance changes.
Veneration of the Saints
System of Penance
This system of penance, ultimately, came from the idea that Christians were expected to not sin once they were baptized. And so, many people would postpone being baptized until very late, and so there would be less time for them to sin. But then penance came about, which was kind've like another shot, so they weren't supposed to sin after penance. Eventually irish came up with reusable penance, but yea. And even buyable penance, like indulgences.
Anselm's Ontological Argument and Atonement Theory
Peter Abelard and Moral Persuasion Theory of Atonement
This states that atonement mainly is the believer's responsibility, it is our job to do better, to act more moral. We don't trick Satan or appease God, we do better and thus please God.