Immunity refers to....
the relative state of resistance
of the host to infectious disease
which type of immunity is the primary line of defense?
True or False: Innate immunity exhibits a memory response
Shigella sp. only infects....
humans and baboons
syphilis and gonorrhea only infect
innate immunity includes...
intact normal flora
tissue bacteriocides (lysozyme, etc.)
phagocytic response (macrophages and neutrophils)
innate immune system species resistance is due to...
Absence of tissue or cellular receptor sites for colonization by pathogen
Host lacks nutrients needed by pathogen
Lack of a target for a microbial toxin
innate individual resistance is to due to....
age, gender, stress, Diet, malnutrition, Diseases or trauma that suppress inflammatory and/or immune responses, and Modern therapeutic procedures that suppress immunity
True or False: is Adaptive immunity the second line of defense?
which type of immune system requires time to react to an invading antigen?
True or False: Adaptive immunity exhibits immunological memory?
why is Adaptive immunity called specific?
because it is Antigen-specific; reacts only with organism that induced the response
what is Adaptive immunity?
a function of the immunological system which is comprised of the lymphoid tissues and organs of the of the body.
what is The reticuloendothelial system (RES)?
it is comprised of phagocytic cells located in different organs of the human body.
where are macrophages usually located in the RES?
in tissues such as the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, brain, and subcutaneous tissues
macrophages located in the liver
macrophages located in the brain
macrophages located in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen.
macrophages located in the subcutaneous tissues
macrophages located in the lungs
Organs comprising the Immune System
Hematopoietic cells are found where?
in the bone marrow
Leukocytes derived from cells in the bone marrow include:
Phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells)
B lymphocytes, plasma cells
T lymphocytes including T helper and cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells
Cells are produced with the assistance of special stimulating factors
what is a B cell?
B lymphocytes develop into antibody-secreting plasma cells following stimulation by antigens
what is a T cell?
T lymphocytes: there are two subsets T helper (TH) and cytotoxic T (TC) lymphocytes.
what is a natural killer cell?
Natural killer (NK) cells directly kill tumor and virus-infected cells. Unlike TC cells, they do not require the presentation of antigen to function.
what is Macrophages?
Play a role in phagocytosis; also function as antigen-presenting cells to other immune cells such as T-and B-cells.
what is Dendritic Cells?
Phagocytic antigen-presenting cells.
TH (CD4+) cells do what?
they coordinate and regulate the immune response. They secrete lymphokines that affect other cells involved in the immune response.
TC (CD8+) cells do what?
they directly kill certain tumor, virus-infected, transplanted cells and eucaryotic parasites.