AP Human Geography Chapter 10

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Ridge Tillage

The process of planting crops on ridge tops formed after cultivation or after harvest.

Sawah

In rice production, this is Austronesian for the flooded field where rice is planted.

Seed agriculture

This was the second form of plant reproduction according to Carl Sauer. It is the reproduction of plants through the annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization.

Chaff

The husk which covers the seed of most grains.

Combine

A machine used in commercial agriculture that performs the three tasks necessary for harvesting grain: reaping, threshing, and cleaning.

Commercial Agriculture

The most common form of agriculture found in MDCs. It is the production of food primarily for the sale of the farm.

Crop

Any plant cultivated by people.

Crop Rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.

Desertification

The deterioration of soil conditions in semi arid regions into desert like conditions. Caused primarily by human action.

Double Cropping

An intensive form of agriculture in where a field will be planted twice in one year to obtain two harvests. It is most common in places with warm winters.

Hull

The outer covering of most grains which can be removed by a mortar and pestal.

Intensive Subsistence Agriculture

A form of subsistence agriculture which is denoted by a higher farmer to arable land ratio in which farmers use much less land to grow more crop.

Milkshed

A ring of transportation that surrounds a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling. This area continues to expand with improved technology and transportation.

Paddy

In rice production, this is Malay for the flooded field where rice is planted. It is also the Malay term for wet rice.

Patoral Nomadism

A form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals.

Pasture

Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.

Plantation

A large farm that specializes in one or two crops. Most are found in LDC's growing crops such as coffee, cocoa, rubber, sugar cane, cotton, tobacco, etc for sale in MDC's.

Agribusiness

The system of commercial farming in the United States which has brought the family farm into a larger food producing industry.

Agriculture

The deliberate modification of the earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.

Cereal Grain

A form of grain such as oats, wheat, rye, or barley.

Prime Agricultural Land

Areas of the most productive farmland, which the loss of has become a serious problem in the United States connected with urban sprawl.

Ranching

The commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. It is normally practiced in areas where vegetation is too sparse and soil is too poor to support crops.

Spring Wheat

A wheat producing area that includes the Dakotas, Montana, and southern Saskatchewan in Canada. In this region, wheat is planted in the spring and harvested in the summer.

Subsistence Agriculture

The most prominent form of agriculture found in LDCs. It is the production of food primarily for the consumption by the farmer and his family.

Sustainable Agriculture

Agricultural practices that work to preserve and enhance environmental quality.

Swidden

The name of the area that has been cleared after the slashing and burning has taken place in slash and burn agriculture.

Thresh

The method used to separate the chaff of a grain from the seed.

Transhumance

The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.

Truck Farming

Farms that are found in the South Eastern United States, but have access to the larger, more urban markets of the North East and grow predominately fruits and vegetables. These farms are able to keep production costs low by using migrant workers who are undocumented and will specialize in a few crops.

Vegetative Planting

According to Carl Sauer, this was the earliest form of cultivation. It is the reproduction of plants by direct cloning of existing plants.

Wet Rice

The practice of planting rice on a dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth.

Winnow

The process by which the chaff of most grains is discarded after threshing.

Winter Wheat

A wheat growth belt that extends through Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma. In this area, the wheat is planted in autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter. The wheat survives the winter and is ripe by the beginning of summer.

Reaper

In agriculture, this is a machine that cuts down grain standing in the field.

Slash and Burn Agriculture

A characteristic of shifting cultivation in which farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris.

Shifting Cultivation

The form of cultivation which is practiced in much of the world's Humid Low-Latitude climates and is characterized by slash and burn agriculture and farmers only using the farm land for a few years.

Grain

The seed from various grasses such as wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet, and others.

Green Revolution

The invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970's and 1980's and involves primarily the introduction of higher yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers.

Horticulture

The growing of fruits vegetables, and flowers.

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