What are characteristics all animals share?
1. multicellular 2. eukaryotic - lack cell walls 3. heterotrophic 4. ability to actively move
animal with no vertebrate column
no true tissues; cannot move (sessile); asymmetric
animals that are permanently attached to a solid surface
What trait separate sponges from other phyla?
they have no true tissues
pores through which water circulates
group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function
cavity which water fills
water exits through this opening after flowing through sponocoel
cell with flagellum (collar cell)
layer of cells functioning as outer covering of sponge
cells resembling amoebas, that move through body of the sponge; responsible for repair and regeneration; transport food and other materials
skeletal elements that give support to the sponge's body; composed of calcium carbonate, silica, or protein called spongin
protein forms flexible fibers
simplest form of a sponge; tubular and small; increased growth, sponocoel increases - bigger = not enough collar cells to move sufficient amount of water because no increase in surface area
organism that filters its food from the water
form of asexual reproduction in which the unequal division of the adult produces two individuals
an animal that posses both male and female sex organs
first stages of body-wall folding; internal pockets lined with collar cells
highest degree of body-wall folding; many chambers lined with collar cells; multiple oscula
animals that feed on organisms suspended in seawater
how do sponges get nutrients?
filter feeders and suspension feeders; rely on the flow of H2O through choanocyte collar cells
How do sponges reproduce?
See page 195
What ecological roles do sponges play?
recycling of Ca; can create toxins to kill corals because of competition for space; produce chemicals that deter grazing; hosts to organisms (mutualism, commensalism)
what is size determined by?
the ability to circulate water
water comes in through this opening
faster moving = less pressure; allows planes to fly; see diagram in notebook; ergo: sponges usually found in areas of high current because the water is then forced up through the sponge
reliance for H2O flow
1. Bernoulli's Principle 2. Beating of flagella by collar cells