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vitamins

mnemonic for b vitamins

Thomas (B1 = Thiamine)
Robinson (B2 = riboflavin)
Never (B3 = niacin)
Plays (B5 = pantothenic acid)
Poor (B6 = pyroxidine)
Basketball (B7 = biotin)
Consistently (B12 = cobalamin)

Thiamine Deficiency (B1)

beriberi
uncommin in US
25% of chronic alcoholics in hospital have it though

Riboflavin Deficiency (B2)

one of most common deficiency diseases
rarely is medical attention sought though
ocular symptoms - eyestrain, fatigue, etc.
also pallor at angle of mouth and glossitis (blue tongue)

Cobalamin (B12)

recommended for everyone over 50 to supplement with
deficiency due pernicious anemia, atrophic gastritic, and/or H. pylori infection in elderly
Used to help add a methyl group onto homocysteine to make it methionine again
the only other time it's needed is in propionate metabolism for branched chain AA metabolism and odd chain FA metabolism (along with biotin (B7))

Choline deficiency

liver damage
choline can be synthetsized from phosphatidylethanolamine by addition of 3 methyl groups from SAM (methionine derivative) to form phosphatidylcholine

Iron Deficiency

Most common trace mineral deficiency
low serum ferritin and elevated transferrin receptor are lab tests for deficiency (opposites to hematochromesis)
causes microcytic anemia (as does dopper, pyridoxine (B6) deficiencies)

Folate (B9) hiding B12 deficiency

Adequate folic acid intake will hide B12 deficiency b/c the patient won't present with macrocytic anemia

Niacin Deficiency (B3)

pellegra
3 D's - dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia

pyridoxal phosphate (pyridoxine derivative B6)

helps transfer an amino group from b/w amino acids to glutamate for the glutamate dehydrogenase rxn

Folate (B9)

the only other thing besides methionine that can add methyl groups
does it in its THF form

Biotin (B7)

usually made by gut bacteria
usually helps add carbons
first part of reaction in turning propionate into Succinyl CoA requires this (2nd rxn requires B12)

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