Biology Protist Test

Created by snowgirl47 

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psuedopod

false foot

psuedopod functions

moves
feeds
phagocytosis

2 types of cytoplasm

ectoplasm
endoplasm

ectoplasm

outlines the protist, creates the psuedopod, thinner

endoplasm

the inside of the protist, fills the psuedopod, thicker

contractile vacuole

opens and closes to primarily remove water and waste

protozoan

animal like protist

cytoplasmic streaming

movement of the cytoplasm into the psuedopod

trichocysts

needle like structures used for protection

cilia

protein hairs used in movement and feeding

macronucleus

metabolic functions

micronucleus

used in reproduction through conjugation

large flagella

moves the organism

small flagella

used in steering

eyespot

detects light

kingdom eubacteria after endosymbiosis

kingdom protista

characteristics of kingdom protista

most are unicellular
eukaryotic organisms
habitat

3 habitats of protists

freshwater
terrestrial
marine

freshwater

aquatic

land

terrestrial

ocean

marine

amoeba feeding

phagocytosis

paramecium feeding

oral groove -> mouth pore -> gullet -> food vacuole

euglena feeding

autotrophic -> photosynthesis

amoeba movement

psuedopod

paramecium movement

cilia

euglena movement

2 flagella

amoeba reproduction

asexually (binary fission)

paramecium reproduction

asexually (binary fission)
OR
sexually (conjugation)

plant like protists

algae

algae

major producer of oxygen
major food source in water ecosystems

4 phyllia of unicellular algae

euglenoids
diatoms
dinoflagellates
green algae

3 phyllia of multicellular algae

red algae
brown algae
green algae

function of fungus like protists

break down organic materials to obtain energy

does the ameba proteus have more then one pseudopod?

yes

how many parts are there in a cytoplasm of the ameba proteus?

2 - ectoplasm and endoplasm

eats both plants and animals

paramecium

anal pore

releases waste

phagocytosis

absorbs things into the membrane of the cell by surrounding food in the membrane and pinching off inside the membrane

cytoplasmic streaming

ectoplasm pushes pellicle out, then endoplasm fills the space in

algae

major producer of oxygen, major food source in water ecosystems

fungus like protists

break down organic materials to obtain energy - examples: molds and mildews

why aren't algae considered plants?

1. don't have different types of tissue - algae has all the same.
2. form gametes in unicellular gametangia(gamete chamber) in plants there is a multicellular gametangia

characteristics of algae

1. most are aquatic
2. have flagella at some point in the life cycle
3. contain pyrenoids

pyrenoids

organelles that synthesize the store starch

4 types of algae

filamentous, unicellular, colonial, and multicellular

unicellular algae

most are aquatic - make up phytoplankton (photosynthetic) organisms that form the foundation of aquatic food chains (make up 1/2 the worlds carbohydrates). major producer of oxygen.

example of unicellular algae

chlamydomonas

colonial algae

groups of cells acting in a coordinated manner - some cells become specialized. divisions of labor allows algae to move, feed, and reproduce efficiently

example of colonial algae

volvox

algae

many sizes
autotrophic

protists

single or multicellular organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom

how protists are defined

exclusion

most diverse type of eukaryotes

protists

protist structure

eukaryotic cells
nucleus
organelles
sometimes live ones have mitchondria

when protists emerged

2 billion years ago

similar to protists

bacteria and cyanobacteria

volvox

several cells in a larger body with labor division

many are autotrophs

protists

many are photosynthetic

protists

how carbohydrates are made

light energy
water molecules
carbon dioxide

how protists move

temporarily extending structures by called psuedopodia

asexual reproduction

binary and multiple fission

sexual reproduction

conjugation (two protists join, exchange genetic information, and divide into 4 parts)

where organelles are from

endosymbiosis

3 types of protists

plant, animal, and fungi like

animal like protists

protozoa
unicellular
moves without cilia or flagella

psuedopodia

large, rounded cytoplasmic extensions that help moving and feeding

how psuedopodia form

cytoplasm flows forward to create a blunt, arm like extension

another name for psuedopodia movement

amoeboid movement

how sacodines feed

surround the food with protozoa, trap the food in a vesicle, release an enzyme to digest food

foraminifera

in oceans, many shells of calcium carbonate. the shells collect and over time create limestone

amebiasis

a fatal disease started in the intenstine and caused by an amoeba living there

paramecium

most common ciliate

pellicle

protein covering, cell membrane of the amoeba

contractile vaculoes

squeeze water out of the cell

2 types of ciliates in nuclei

macronucleus
micronucleus

ciliates

use conjugation and meiosis

algae structure

chloroplasts
photosynthetic
no true roots, stems or leaves
plantlike

gametangia

single-celled gamete chambers

algae

cholorphyll a
aquatic
have flagella
contain pyrenoids
synthesize and store starch

unicellular algae

phytoplankton

kelp

multicellular algae

thallus

plantlike body portion of seaweed

green algae

chlorophylls a and b
carotenoids
cell walls made of cellulose
corals and lichens

euglenoids

both plant and animal like, autotrophic, no cell wall.
move fast, live in digestive tracts of certain animals, abundant in water, flexible, have a pellicle.

euglena in the dark

heterotrophic
have chloroplasts

filamentous algae

have slender, rod shaped body - tows of cells joined end to end

example of filamentous algae

spirogyra

multicellular algae

have a leaf like body

example of a multicellular algae

ulva or maerocystis pryrifera (giant algae)

brown algae

multicellular, contain chlorophyls - mostly brown, mostly marine, plant like (seaweed/kelps), most common around rocky coasts.

structures of brown algae

thallus, holdfast, stipe, blade.

thallus of brown algae

is made up of all the other parts. the blade is the top part. stipe is the stem like part in the middle. the holdfast is used to anchor the kelp to something at the bottom of the ocean/sea.

diatoms

unicellular, form shells(the cell wall), made of 2 pieces that form together like a box and lid, used in toothpaste.

two types of diatoms

centric
pennate

centric diatoms

circular or triangular shells - marine environments

pennate diatoms

rectangular shaped - aquatic environments

all diatoms

major part of phytoplankton, producer in both aquatic and marine food webs (at the base of the food web), release oxygen.

Dinoflagellates

unicellular, 2 flagellum, cell walls are made of cellulose, most are photosynthetic autotrophs, some are red - produce toxins like red tide

red tide

always there, just not enough to cause problems. infects shellfish but not enough to make them sick. posions humans when they eat the infected fish. the poison makes humans sick and you can die.

what causes red tide?

when there are lots of dinoflagellates in the water and the temperature increases - the can divide/multiply a lot quicker. also when theres a lot of pollutions in the water.

golden algae

aquatic, can be used to create oil- petroleum deposits

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