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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Hox clusters
  2. Heterozygous
  3. Hayflick limit
  4. Gametes
  5. Morphogen
  1. a Specialised sex cells. In many organisms the gametes are haploid and are produced by meiosis.
  2. b Groups of homeobox genes. More complex organisms have more such groups, probably due to a mutation that duplicated them.
  3. c Eukaryotic cell or organism that has two different alleles for a specific gene.
  4. d A substance that controls the pattern of tissue development. It is produced in a particular region of a developing organism. It diffuses to other cells, which then enter a specific developmental pathway.
  5. e A reference to the fact that normal body cells can only divide a finite number of times, normally about 50 mitotic divisions. In contrast, tumour cells are essentially immortal.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The formation of an RNA molecule, using a length of DNA as a template and catalysed by RNA polymerase.
  2. A change in DNA sequence that introduces a premature stop codon within a DNA coding sequence.
  3. Alleles present within cells of an individual, for a particular trait/characteristic.
  4. Genes that control the development of the body plan of an organism.
  5. Variation of genetic information in a gene pool.

5 True/False questions

  1. Stop codonOne of three triplet codes (UGA, UAG or UAA) that causes the termination of translation by the ribosome.


  2. Spindle fibresMade of microtubules, these structures are responsible for providing the framework for segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.


  3. GenomeA length of DNA that codes for one (or more) polypeptides/proteins. Some may code for RNA or regulate other genes.


  4. Template strandThe DNA strand encompassing a gene that carries the sequence identical to the message sequence.


  5. MutationStructural change to genetic material - either to a gene or to a chromosome.


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