5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Sexual reproduction
- a Eukaryotic organisms or cell with more than two sets of chromosomes.
- b Characteristic in which the allele responsible is only expressed in the phenotype if there is no dominant allele present.
- c Type of nuclear division. A reduction division. The chromosome number is halved. It involves two divisions. It produces cells that are genetically different from each other and from the parent cell.
- d Specialised sex cells. In many organisms the gametes are haploid and are produced by meiosis.
- e Production of new organisms involving fusion of nuclei from male and female gametes, usually from unrelated individuals. Increases genetic variation in the population.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Programmed cell death. An orderly process by which cells self-destruct in an orderly fashion after a certain number of cell divisions, or if they cannot repair DNA damage.
- A reference to the fact that normal body cells can only divide a finite number of times, normally about 50 mitotic divisions. In contrast, tumour cells are essentially immortal.
- Causes an expansion or contraction of a run of identical codons within a gene affecting the length of a run of identical amino acids in the polypeptide.
- A short length of about 100 RNA nucleotides that adopts a clover leaf structure and carries an amino acid to the ribosome to be incorporated into a growing polypeptide chain.
- A characteristic where both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
5 True/False questions
Neutral mutation → Causes an expansion or contraction of a run of identical codons within a gene affecting the length of a run of identical amino acids in the polypeptide.
Genetic code → Alleles present within cells of an individual, for a particular trait/characteristic.
Spindle fibres → Large polymer molecule made of many amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Dominant → Characteristic in which the allele responsible is expressed in the phenotype even in those with heterozygous genotypes.
Hox clusters → Specific position on a chromosome, occupied by a specific gene.