When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound becomes _______. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron donor.
When a compound accepts (gains) electrons, that compound becomes ______. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor.
Once the electron donor in glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called what?
Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?
Pyruvate, ATP and NADH
In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?
To function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.
How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation?
Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.
Under anaerobic conditions (a lack of oxygen), the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA stops. Why does this occur?
In the absence of oxygen, electron transport stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, which is needed for the first three stages of cellular respiration.
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
NADH and FADH2 and intermembrane space
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
Kinetic energy that is realeased as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient.
Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?
Anion and Cation
Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?
Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.
Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?
A hydrogen atom is transfered to the atom that loses an electron.
True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three phosphate groups.
Which process is not part of the cellular respiration pathway that produces large amounts of ATP in a cell?
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?
NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.
True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.
The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the
H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions.
Provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient.
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is what?
What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction? Pyruvate + NADH + H+ S Lactate + NAD+
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
The pH of the matrix increases
Which of the following statements accurately describes the function of a metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration?
The function of glycolysis is to begin catabolism by breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, with a net yield of two ATP.
In cellular respiration, a series of molecules forming an electron transport chain alternately accepts and then donates electrons. What is the advantage of such an electron transport chain?
The advantage of an electron transport chain is that a small amount of energy is released with the transfer of an electron between each pair of intermediates.
How will a healthy individual's ATP production change during an eight-hour fast?
The individuals ATP production will no change significantly