Chapter Nine

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What is the net input involved in glycolysis

ADP, glucose and NAD+

What is the net output of glycolysis?

ATP, NADH and pyruvate

What is the net input involved in the formation of acetyl CoA?

Pyruvate, NAD+ and coenzyme A

What is the net ouput of the formation of acetyl CoA?

Acetyl CoA, NADH and CO2

What is the net input involved in the citric acid cycle?

Acetyl CoA, NAD+ and ADP.

What is the net output of the citric acid cycle?

NADH, CO2, ATP and coenzyme A

What is the net input in oxidative phosphorylation?

NADH, ADP and O2

What is the net output of oxidative phosphorylation?

ATP, NAD+ and Water

Where does glycolysis take place?

The cytosol

Where does the formation of acetyl CoA take place?

The mitochondrial matrix

Where does the citric acid cycle take place?

The Mitochondrial Matrix

Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

The inner mitochondrial membrane

When a compound donates (loses) electrons, that compound becomes _______. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron donor.

Oxidized

When a compound accepts (gains) electrons, that compound becomes ______. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor.

Reduced

In glycolysis, the carbon containing compound that functions as the electron donor is what?

Glucose

Once the electron donor in glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called what?

Pyruvate

What is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis.

NAD+

The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis is what?

NADH

Among the products of glycolysis, which compounds contain energy that can be used by other biological reactions?

Pyruvate, ATP and NADH

In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?

To function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.

How would anaerobic conditions (when no O2 is present) affect the rate of electron transport and ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation?

Both electron transport and ATP synthesis would stop.

Under anaerobic conditions (a lack of oxygen), the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA stops. Why does this occur?

In the absence of oxygen, electron transport stops. NADH is no longer converted to NAD+, which is needed for the first three stages of cellular respiration.

In muscle cells, fermentation produces what?

Lactate and NAD+

In fermentation ______ is reduced and ______ is oxidized .

Pyruvate and NADH

For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.

Two

Each Glucose produces how many pyruvates?

Two

For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.

Six

In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.

Oxidative Phosphorylation

The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.

Oxygen

During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.

NADH and FADH2 and intermembrane space

The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.

Kinetic energy that is realeased as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient.

How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?

Two

In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by what?

Substrate level phosphorylation

Which of these is not a product of glycolysis?

FADH2

In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?

ATP

In glycolysis, there is a net gain of ______ ATP.

Two

What enters the citric acid cycle?

Acetyl CoA

In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by what

Substrate level phosporylation

What is not a product of the citric acid cycle?

Acetyl CoA

Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons?

Electronegativity

Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other?

Anion and Cation

Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule?

Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.

Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions?

A hydrogen atom is transfered to the atom that loses an electron.

What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride?

Ionic

Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?

Glucose

True or false? The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three phosphate groups.

True

Which process is not part of the cellular respiration pathway that produces large amounts of ATP in a cell?

Fermentation

Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?

Glycolysis

Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?

Carbon Dioxide

Which of the following statements about the electron transport chain is true?

NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the chain.

Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?

Electron transport and Chemiosmosis

True or false? The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the mitochondria.

True

The immediate energy source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation is the

H+ concentration across the membrane holding ATP synthase.

Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

Glycolysis

In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions.

Provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient.

The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that functions in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is what?

Oxygen

What is the oxidizing agent in the following reaction? Pyruvate + NADH + H+ S Lactate + NAD+

Pyruvate

When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?

The pH of the matrix increases

Most CO2 from catabolism is released during?

The citric acid cycle

Which of the following statements accurately describes the function of a metabolic pathway involved in cellular respiration?

The function of glycolysis is to begin catabolism by breaking glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, with a net yield of two ATP.

In cellular respiration, a series of molecules forming an electron transport chain alternately accepts and then donates electrons. What is the advantage of such an electron transport chain?

The advantage of an electron transport chain is that a small amount of energy is released with the transfer of an electron between each pair of intermediates.

How will a healthy individual's ATP production change during an eight-hour fast?

The individuals ATP production will no change significantly

True or false: Cellular respiration and breathing differ in that cellular respiration is at the cellular level, whereas breathing is at the organismal level.

True.

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