antibody mediated immune response

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B- cell arm is for the?

Antibody-mediated immune response

T-cell arm

Cell-mediated immune response

on the B- cell arm under antigenic stimulus what is the first thing that happens?

B-lymphocytes become transformed into antibody-secreting plasma cells.

on the T-cell arm under antigenic stimulus what is the main thing that happens?

PreT-lymphocytes differentiate into several classes of effector T cells

T cells are responsible for what?

Mediate of the B-cell response to antigen
Recognize and destroy cells bearing foreign Ags on their surface
Produce a variety of diffusible immunoregulatory cytokines and/or lymphokines that direct or augment the B and T cell immune responses

Cytokines and lymphokines are made out of?

proteins, glycoproteins or peptides

Cytokines and lymphokines have the means of?

intercellular communication and are secreted by a cell to stimulate the activity of another cell.

Antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) is?

an Adaptive immunity mediated by soluble globular host proteins called antibodies or immunoglobulins.

Antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) is also called?

circulating immunity or humoral immunity.

Primary immune response begins...

when an antigen penetrates epithelial surfaces, then when the antigen comes in contact with other macrophages or antigen presenting cells.

Antigens are internalized by

endocytosis by a phagocytic cell

in the primary immune response, after a antigen is eaten by a phagocytic cell then what happens?

it is "processed" by the phagocyte which becomes and antigen-presenting cell or APC.

what does the antigen-presenting cell do in the primary immune response?

it presents information about the AG to immunocompetent TH2 lymphocytes

after the APC presents its antigen information what else happens?

the TH2 (CD4+) cell recognizes the antigen together with the Class II MHC molecules, then secretes the various lymphokines that activate the B cells to become antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells.

The components of the MHC II molecules are synthesized where?

in the endoplasmic reticulum of the phagocyte

the phagolysosome is also the

endosome

TH2 cells are activated to?

assist B cells make antibody.

Bacteria reside and replicate where in the host?

primarily extracellular

TH2 cells produce lymphokines which stimulate B cells to do what?

divide and differentiate into plasma cells which make antibody (Ab) against that particular antigen on the surface of the APC

are plasma cells short lived?

yes

what produces plasma cells?

the division and clone maturation of B cells

which type of cells are long lived? plasma cells or memory B cells

memory B cells

name the 5 classes of antibodies

IgM
IgG
IgA
IgD
IgE

IgG, IgE, IgD are found as

monomers

antibody found as a dimer

IgA

antibody found a pentamer

IgM

held together by the J-chain

Dimers and pentamers

First to appear during the course of an infection and the first immunoglobulin to by synthesized by infants

IgM

appears on the surfaces of mature B cells as a transmembranous monomer where it functions as an antigen receptor

IgM

IgM bound to a microbial surface act as

opsonins

IgM antibodies are mainly confined to where

the bloodstream

these antibodies Neutralizes toxins

IgM

which antibody makes up 75% of the total serum antibody.

IgG

most common Ig found in extravascular spaces

IgG

this antibody provides passive immunity to the fetus and infant for the first 6 months of life

IgG

this antibody is effective at the neutralization of bacterial exotoxins and viruses

IgG

15% of the total antibody serum

IgA

Exists as a dimer in secretions via a J-chain

IgA

Secretion of dimeric IgA is mediated by a glycoprotein called

the secretory component.

what are the two subclasses of IgA and what are they based on?

IgA1 and IgA2 and they are based on heavy chains

which subclass of IgA is produced in bone marrow and makes up most of the serum IgA?

IgA1

synthesized in GALT to be secreted onto the mucosal surfaces.

IgA1 and IgA2

has a short half life in serum (6 days), and it is lost in secretory products.

IgA

Secretory IgA is predominate where?

gastrointestinal fluids
nasal secretions
saliva
tears
other mucous secretions of the body.

secretory IgA is Important in resistance to infection of

the mucosal surfaces of the body, particularly the respiratory, intestinal and urogenital tracts.

This antibody does not activate complement

SIgA

transferred in milk, via the colostrum, from a nursing mother to an infant.

SIgA

provides passive immunity to many pathogens

SIgA

monomeric four-chain polypeptide structure that is similar to IgG

IgD and IgE

found for the most part on the surfaces of B lymphocytes

IgD

two antibody thought to function as mutually-interacting antigen receptors for control of B-cell activation and suppression.

IgD and IgM

similar to IgG but the heavy chain (ε) is distinct.

IgE

similar to IgG but its heavy chain (δ) is unique.

IgD

0.002% of the total serum immunoglobulins

IgE

produced especially by plasma cells below the respiratory and intestinal epithelia.

IgE

binds avidly to circulating blood basophils and mast cells in the submucosal sites and the skin

IgE

initiate the pathogenesis of immediate hypersensitivity

IgE

IgE trigger the release of low-molecular weight vasoactive compounds

histamine
leukotrienes
platelet-activating factor
certain proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-5

next line of defense If an infectious agent succeeds in penetrating the IgA barrier

the MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues)

why is MALT important?

because they amplify the local inflammatory response that facilitates rejection of a pathogen.

Antibody-mediated immunity response defends host against pathogenic microbes by

Opsonization
Steric hindrance
Toxin Neutralization
Agglutination and Precipitation
Activation of Complement
Antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC)

functions of antibodies are

antigen binding and Effector function of Antibodies (Ab)

antigen binding

Each antibody binds to a specific antigenic determinant (epitope), This is a function of the Fab portion of the molecule, Valence of an antibody (Ab) = # epitopes Ab molecule can bind (2 or more)

Effector function of antibodies

Complement fixation (Fc region of Ab molecule), Binding to various cell types, activating them to perform some function:
Macrophages, Monocytes, PMNs. and opsonization by lymphocytes

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