Transmission of societies norms and values - socialisation into fair competition, Brittish identity, self discipline, obedience, constraint - SECONDARY SOCIALISATION
'Education is a bridge between the family and adult roles in wider society'
In schools whereby everyone is treated the same
Standards in the family whereby rules are applied individually to each child
Stress is based upon ability/effort (achieved rather than ascribed) - ensures the best puils will rise to appropriate roles via (fair) tests/exams
Davis and Moore
Role Allocation - 'Education sorts and sifts individuals ' - inequality is both natural and inevitable as people are born with unequal talents/abilities providing a meritocracy where people gain their position on ability alone.
Education teaches the skills required by modern industrial society - general/specific/vocational skills - every idividual competes on equal terms and schools turn out an achievement orientated workforce with the right values to work hard.
norms/values/beliefs/attitudes that are taught in school to benefit both the pupil and society - e.g. discipline, competition, rules etc.
A sense of community and feeling that you belong to society
Louis Althusser (1971)
Ideological State Apparatus (the ruling class control people's ideas and beliefs through the education system, media, religion etc.
Repressive State Apparatus
The Ruling Class use force to control the working class and protect their power/position in society via police/courts/army etc.
Reproduction of Class Inequality
Education reprodces class inequality by failing each generation of working class pupils in turn. This ensures that they end up in the same kind of low paid, insecure jobs as their parents.
The Legitimation of Class Inequality
Ideologies of the education system to try to convince people that ineuqality is inevitable and that failure is the fault of the individual, not the capitalist system. If people accept this, they are less likely to challenge/threaten capitalism.
School mirrors the workplace (Bowles and Gintis)
The things that pupils learn informally from their experience of going to school (correct attitudes needed for work in the capitalist system) e.g. concentrating, extrinsic satisfaction, heirarchy, fragmentation, competition, lack of autonomy
Myth of Meritocracy
Education is a myth making machine (Bowles and Gintis) - ILLUSION. In most cases there is no equality and failure is due to social class/background - THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IS UNFAIR - because people believe it is fair, it reduces the amount of discontent in society.
Willis (1977) - Learning to Labour
(Neo-marxist) critical of Bowles and Gintis as the correspondence theory is deterministic (it assumes that education is always successful in socialising pupils via the hidden curriculum, when in reality often pupils reject the vaules of school/capitalism).
People's interactions and how they interpret or give meaning to situations
How you see yourself and construct your own identity, which influences your behaviour
A prediction that becomes true
Defining or categorising an individual or group in a stereotypical way. Stereotypes can be positive or negative (e.g. clever/stupid)
Pupils are seperated into different ability classes for all subjects based on ability e.g. "A" Stream
Howard Becker (1971)
Labelling in Secondary Schools - Teachers judge pupils by their natural ability/intelligence but by how closely they fit the image of an "ideal pupil" - e.g. social class, appearance, speech, personalities, attitudes, behaviour.
Ray Rist (1977)
Labelling in Primary Schools - Teachers used home background to seperate pupils into different ability gaps, middle classes = Tigers, working class = Clowns/Cardinals.
Nell Keddie (1971)
Streaming in a London Comprehensive School - "A" Stream were middle class (teachers "ideal" pupil), "C" Stream were working class.
High Status Knowledge
"A" Stream were taught Abstact and Theoretical knowledge.
Low Status Knowledge
"C" Stream were taught descriptive, commonsense knowledge.
Rosenthal and Jacobson (1967)
"Pymalion" (teaching culture) in the classroom - all children were tested wiht an IQ Tests in a Primary School in California to test whether the idea of Labelling was true.
Collin Lacey (1970)
Streaming and Pulil Subcultures - streaming can lead to pupil subcultures as pupils seek out those whom have been labelled in the same/similar ways.
A group of people in society who share similar values/behaviour patterns.
Mary Fuller (1984)
Studies black girls in a London Comprehensive School and found that they were able to reject negative labels and educational success became a part of their resisitance to teachers labels (SELF NEGATING PROPHECY)
Official (Formal) Curriculum
All the subjects that are taught e.g. English, Maths, Science
Power and Authority held by men (male domination)
Eplaining the world through Western eyes and ignoring the positive influences and contributions of other cultures (e.g. black people have tended to be ignored in British history and they are often discussed in a negative way e.g. The Slave Trade.
Explaining the wrold through male eyes and ignoring the positive contributions that females have.
Registar's General Scale
A way of measuring occupations of social classes+
(external) - Burt(1943), Jenson (1976), Fletcher (1991) - Intelligence is largely inherrited and the working class (supported by IQ Tests) are simply les intelligent than the Middle Class.
A lack of material things e.g. books, computers, poor housing etc. is likely to put children (working class in particular) at a disadvantage in the education system.
A lack of the relevant culture (Middle Class) -
Material Deprivation was an important factor and it also influenced whether or not they decided to stay in education
Children from poorer homes tend to have more absences from school due to illness as a result of poor diet and a weakened immune system. This consequently has a negative effect on their educational achievement.
Children in poverty take on more jobs such as babysitting, cleaning, paper rounfs etc. Tgus often has a negative impact upon their educational achievement.
Hayman's USA Study (1967)
3 Differences Between the working class and middle class, affecting educational success. Working class place less value on education (IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION), working classs have a low value on education (parents show less interest), working class believe is fatalism.
Study in the UK and found a direct relationship between differences in operations. These attitudes are then passed onto the children of each class. Middle class = secure, working class = insecure.
Policy set by the government to target the poorest areas in britain to compensate the working class for poor working class culutre
The Plowden Report (1976)
Cultural deprivation was one of the main reasons for working class failure. As a result the government set up "educational priority areas"
Cultural Capital Theory
Combines aspects of both cultural and material explanations.
The wealth in which middle class families own
the language, expression, social skills, specific forms of cultural knowledge which middle class parents pass on to their children.
Marxist... middle class pupils are more successful necause parents possess more cultural capital e.g. reading "good" books and watching the "right" television programmes. Middle class are more likely to be taken to museums, theatres or art galleries. School reproduces the culutre of the middle class.
Education success and speech patterns.
Mostly used by working class containing simple, short sentences, very few adjectives, unclear meanings etc.
Used Mostly by the middle class containing more complex sentences, with a clear distinct meaning.
Natural differences in types of intelligence between genders - males have better visual-spatial ability, females have better verbal ability.
Gender role socialisation involves learning the behaviour expected of males/females.
Fiona Norman (1988)
In the family, from an early age boys and girls are dressed differently and given different toys and are encouraged to participate in different activities. Parents tend to reward boys for being active, and girls for being passive.
Eilrrn Byre (1979)
At school, teachers encouraged boys to be toughand show initiative and to not be weak. Whereas girls were expected to be quiet, helpful, neat and tidy.
Murphy and Elwood (1998)
Boys read different books and information texts so prefer science subjects, whilst girls read stories about people and prefer subjects such as English/