French philosopher, developed positivism, argued in The Positive Philosophy that human thought developed in three stages, believed in positive laws of social nature
a philosophy of human intellectual development that culminated in science
wrote On the Origin of Species, known as the "Newton of Biology", did not originate the concept of evolution, formulated the principle for natural selection, worked with Alfred Russel Wallace to explain how evolution could have happened
On the Origin of Species
carries the mechanical interpretation of physical nature into the world of living things
Descent of Man
(1871) Darwin applied the principle of evolution by natural selection to human beings
the principle of survival of the fittest, developed by Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
Austrian monk, worked on heredity
a British philosopher, a strong individualist, believed human society progresses through competition
Evolutionary ethics and similar concepts, came close to saying that "might makes right"
Thomas Henry Huxley
one of the chief opponents of social Darwinism, the great defender of Darwin
published a paper on his discovery of x-rays
published papers on relativity in which he contended that time and space exist not separately, but rather as a combined continuum
Theory of Relativity
time and space exist not separately, but rather as a combined continuum
had an uncertainty principle: the behavior of subatomic particles is a matter of statistical probability
the behavior of subatomic particles is a matter of statistical probability
father of Psychoanalysis, born in Austrian-Jewish family, believed the neurotic symptoms had their origins in childhood, studied dreams and sexual energy
Interpretation of Dream
Freud wrote about infantile sexuality, his most important book
id, ego, superego
aggression, valued imposed by society, copes with the id and ego
a Swiss, a promising student of Freud, questioned the primacy of sexual drives in forming personality and in contributing to mental disorder, put less faith in reason
the human subconscious contains inherited memories from previous generations, which constitute of the soul
David Friedrich Strauss
published The Life of Jesus, contending that Jesus is a myth arising from particular social and intellectual conditions of first-century Palestine
The Life of Jesus
Strauss questioned whether the Bible provides any genuine historical evidence about Jesus
Charles Lyell (geology)
suggested that the earth is much older than biblical records contend, removed the miraculous hand of God from the physical development of the earth
German philosopher, attacked Christianity, democracy, nationalism, rationality, science and progress, wanted to explore how human being made the masks of respectable life
Thus Spake Zarathustra
Nietzsche criticized democracy and Christianity
(Overman), who would embody heroism and greatness, a super race
Beyond Good and Evil
Nietzsche sought to discover what is good and what is evil, but the social and psychological sources of the judgment of good and evil
Pope Pius IX
(r. 1846-1878) fled the turmoil in Rome in 1848 and launched a counteroffensive against liberalism, set the church against contemporary science, philosophy, and physics, summoned the First Vatican Council, had very centralized authority within the church
Doctrine of Papal Infallability
spread a centralized authority within the Church by the First Vatican Council by Pope Pius IX
Pope Leo XIII Rerum Novarum
private property, religious education and religious control of marriage laws were defended and socialism and Marxism was condemned, employee equality was promoted
a German sociologist, dismissed Islam as a religion and culture incapable of developing science and closed to new ideas, regarded the emergence of rationalism throughout society as the major development of human history, bureaucratization, contended (in contrast to Marx) that noneconomic factors might account for major developments in human history
involved the division of labor as each individual fit into a particular role in much larger organizations
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Weber traced much of the rational character of capitalist enterprise to the ascetic religious doctrines of Puritanism
differed from Weber, wrote Reflections on Violence
Reflections on Violence
Sorel argued that people do not pursue rationally perceived goals but are led to action by collectively shared ideals
Arthur de Gobineau
a reactionary French diplomat, enunciated the first important theory of race as the major determinant of human history
Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
Gobineau portrayed the troubles of Western civilization as the result of the long degeneration of the original white Aryan race
Houston Stewart Chamberlain
an Englishman who settled in Germany, drew together these strands of racial thought into two volumes of his Foundation of the Nineteenth Century (1899), anti-semitic
Foundations of the 19th Century
(1899) Chamberlain drew together these strands of racial thought into two volumes of his Foundation of the Nineteenth Century
founder of the Zionist movement, Austro-Hungarian
a movement to found a separate Jewish state where Jews are protected and treated justly, founded by Herzl,
Motives for New Imperialism
Economic motives, Foreign investment, Europeans needed to spread their culture to those who were labeled as "backwards", Christian missionaries were sent overseas to convert native peoples
Transportation, communications, weapons.
later adopted by Lenin, was that imperialism was thee monopoly of capitalism, if one runs out of ways to increase wealth in one's own country, more to another, imperialism was the last stage of a dying system (anti-capitalism, prof-Marxist)
Overproduction led to market search, capitalism does not work
A mix of nationalism and social Darwinism. Don't get left behind in the race.
Patriotic chauvinism. Prove your countries dominance with aggressive foreign policy.
White man's burden
The idea that white Anglo-Saxon's are the supreme race, and therefore they must "enlighten" the "non-white savages"
The Brits now controlled the Suez canal which was a lifeline to this important country
British East India Company
The organization that traded in and controlled India from the 18th century up until the Sepoy Revolt.
A revolt of the Sepoy (Indian soldiers under the control of the British Army) in 1857 because of the wax that sealed the new ammunition cartridges. Seeing as the new wax came from beef fat, it was understandable that the Hindi soldiers would revolt.
Triangular trade with China and Britain
British manufacturers sent things to India. Bullion, Indian textiles and opium to China. Chinese silk and tea to Britain.
(1839-42) From 1729 to 1838, the amount of chests of opium exported to China increased from 200 to 40,000. The Chinese government worried about the social costs of opium because over 12 million Chinese were addicted to it. Britain went to war to open trade after the government enforced laws against it. Ended in Treaty of Nanking.
Treaty of Nanking
Britain got to trade opium with the Chinese and extraterritoriality, which meant that if you committed a crime in a different country then your home, you would be tried in your homeland.
Sphere of influence
After 5 more Euro-China wars from 1842-1895, each one being followed by unfair treaties, each European power got a sphere of influence in China, which basically meant that they each had ports of trade
The Society of the Harmonious Fists fought back against the "Christian Devils" and foreigners. The rebellion was crushed by 20,000 troops from various nations across Europe.
King of Belgium, invested in Congo but basically destroyed it then borrowed money off his country to pay off his debts
bought by Leopold II of Belgium, who's influence was questionable, he destroyed it
Berlin Conference of 1884
a conference called by Bismarck to divide African territory amongst the nations of Europe
1898 Britain met France in Fashoda. It was the start of the scramble for Africa.
war in between the Afrikaners (Dutch who originally settle in South Africa) and the British, the pact established control by the European minority over majority black and non white populations, "colored" people weren't allowed to own land or vote