Olive -- Rocks, Minerals, and Soil

24 terms by MsO_is_awesome

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sedimentary rock

formed from broken up pieces of rock called sediment that have been compacted over thousands of years; has layers; can contain fossils

igneous rock

formed from lava or magma that has cooled and hardened; usually dark colored; contains holes called pores

metamorphic

formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are changed by heat or pressure; has crystals and streaks of light and dark

minerals

make up rocks

crystals

make up minerals

luster

how shiny or dull a mineral is; the way a mineral's surface reflects light

hardness

how easily a mineral can be scratched

streak

the color of a mineral's powder

color

the color of mineral

texture

the way a mineral feels

cleavage

the way a mineral breaks apart

weathering

the breaking down of rock on Earth's surface into smaller pieces

sediment

broken up pieces of rock

erosion

the process of moving sediment from one place to another

soil

a mixture of weathered rock, decayed plant and animal matter, water, and air

humus

decayed plant and animal matter

sand

has the largest particles; does not hold water well

silt

has medium sized particles

clay

has the smallest particles; holds water and nutrients well; often used for making pottery because of its texture

loam

a mixture of sand, clay, and silt; ideal for gardening because it contains nutrients and moisture

topsoil

top layer of soil containing a mixture of humus and minerals

subsoil

second layer of soil containing partly weathered

bedrock

the bottom layer of soil containing solid rock

horizons

different layers of soil

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