Queen Elizabeth I
Queen of England 1558-1603. Final break with the Roman Catholic Church. Spaish Armada defeated. She was Protestant, vain, fickle, prejudiced, and miserly. She was an uunusually successful ruler and never married. "Virgin Queen"
Sir Francis Drake
Most famous "sea dog". Plundered hi way around the planet, came back 1580 with Spanish booty which came up to 4600 percent which he gave to finicial brokers-Queen of England. Later he was knighted by the Queen on the deck of his barnacled ship.
Hardy English buccaneers who sought to promote the twin goals of Protestantism and plunder by siezing Spainsh trreasure ships and raiding Spanish settlements. Most famous was Sir Francis Drake.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Half -brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert who first attempted English colonization. Continued the pursuit and organized and expedition landing in 1585 on NC's Roanoke Island off the coast of Virginia. The Roanoke colony eventually mysteriously vanished.
Phillip of Spain, self anointed for of the Protestant Reformation, usead part of imperial gains to amass an "Invincible Armada" of ships for and invasion of England. In 1588, Spainsh flotilla of 130 cast into the English Channel. English sea dogs fought back with ships that were more maneuverable and more ably manned. The English inflicted heavy damage on the Spaish and a storm also arose (the "Protestant Wind") scattering the cripple Spainsh fleet. The Spainsh Armada marked the beggining of the end of the Spanish imperial dreams, it dampened Spain's fighing spirit and helped ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic.
Laws that decreed that only eldest sons were eligable to inherit landed estates.
Made in the early 1600's, this was a forerunner of the modern corporation. it enabled a considerable number of inverstors, called "adventurers", to pool their capital. Virginia Company of London was a joint-stock company made in 1606.
Virginia Company of London
A joint-stock company that recieved a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World. Like most joint-sock companies of the day, this was intended only to endure for only a few years, after which its stockholders hoped to liquidate it for a profit,
Charter of the Virginia Company
Significant document in American history. It guaranteed to the overseas settlers the smae rights of the Englishmen that they would ahve enjoyed if they had stayed at home. This was gradually extended to subsequent English colonies, helping to reinforce the colonists' sense that even across the Atlantice, they remained comfortablely within the embrace of traditional English institutions. Later their insistance on the "rights of Englishmen" caused their appitite for independance.
King James I
!566-1625. He had scant enthusiasm for the Virginia experiment pertly because of his hatred of tobacco smoking, which had been introduced into the Old World by the Spanish discovererd. In 1604 he published the pamphlet- A Counterblast to Tobacco. Virginia's Company named the James River and Jamestown after him.
Colonists were pushed up to the malrial banks of the James River. It was easy to defend but mosquito infested and devatatiingly unhealthful. On May 24, 1607 about 100 Enligsh settlers disembarked. The place was a nightmare for al concerned. Dozens dies from disease, malnutrition, and starvation-these gentleman were not accostomed to fending for themselves.
Virginia was saved due to the leadership and resourcefulness of an tinrepid young adventurer. Taking over in1608, he whipped the gold-hungry colonists into line with "He who shall not work shall not eat".He was kidnapped in1607 and mock executed by the Indian Cheiftan Powhatan whose daugther Pocahontas "saved" him-was intended to impress Smith with Powhatan's power and with the Indian's desire for peaceful realtions with the Virginians.
Indian chieftan who played a mock execution of John Smith to show his power and to express his desire to have peaceful realtions with the Virginians. He dominated the native peoples living in the James River area. He asserted supremacy over a few dozen small tribes, loosely affliated in what became the confederacy.
The daughter of the cheiftan Powhatan who "saved" John Smithby dramaticallyinterposing her head between his and the war clubs of his captors. She became an intermediary between the Indians and the settlers, helping to preserve a shaky peace and to provide needed foodstuffs. Married John Rolfe-the first known interacial union in Virginia, ended the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614.
Lord De La Warr
New governor of the colonists, part of a relief party headed for the James River, in 1610. He ordered the settlers back to Jamestown and imposed a harsh military regime on the colony, and soon undertook aggressive action against the Indians. Strained he relationship between the colonists and the Indians, even brought word from the Virginia Company that declared war against the Indians in Jamestown. Used "Irish Tactics" against the Indians.
Anglo-Powahatan War of 1614
Lord De La Warr carried orders from the Virginia Company declaring war against the Indians in Jamestown. Introduced "Irish Tactics" to the Indians. His troops raided Indian villages, burned houses, confiscated provisions, and torched cornfields. A peace settlement ended this first was in 1614, sealed by the marriage of Pocahontas to the colonist John Ralfe.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War of 1644
Fragile respite followed the First Anglo-Powhatan War, enduring 8 years. The Indians were pressed by the land-hungry whites and ravaged by the European diseases, and struck back in 1622. Indian attacks left 347 colonists dead including John Ralfe. The Virginia Company issued another war "without peace or truce" preventing the Indians "from being any longer a people". The Indians wer again defeaterd and banished from the Chesapeake area, creating the later reservation system.
The father of the tobacco industry and economic savior of the Virginia colony. Married to Pocahontas sealing the peace settlement ending the First Anglo-Powhatan War. The first known interracial union in Virginia. He was later killed by the Indians attacks.
John Rolfe was the father of the tobacco industry. Soon the European created a high demand for this product. So exclusivly did the colonists concentrate on planting this yellow leaf that they had to import some of their food. Virginia's prosperity was built on tobacco smoke. This "bewitching weed" played a vital role in putting the colony on firm economic foundations. Fatefully, this promoted the broad-acred plantation system and with it a demand for labor. Tobacco was a poor man's crop-could be planted easily, produced commercially marketabl leaves within a year, and required only simple processing.
House of Burgesses
Representative self-government, created in 1619. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon this assembly.
Founded Maryland. Came from a prominant English Catholic family. he embarked upon the venture partly to reap financial profits and partly to create a refugeg for his fellow Catholics.Hoped St. Mary's on Chesppeake Bay would be the vanguard of a vast new feudal domain. Permitted unusual freedom of worship hoping to create toleration for his own fellow worshipers.
Virginia's tobacco industry depended for labor from these people. They were white penniless persons who bound themselves to work for a number of years to pay their passage. It was only in the alter years of the 17th Centuary that black slvaes began o be imported in large numbers.
Act of Toleration
Marylands's religious statute guaranteed toleration to all Christians, passed in 1649 by the local representative assembly. It decreed the death penalty for those, like Jews and atheists, who denied the divinity of Jesus.
Emerged as the principle export crop in Carolina, an exotic food in England. This was grown in Africa, and the Carolinians were soon paying premium prices for West African slaves expierenced in rice cultivation.
Barbados Slave Code of 1661
To control this large and potentially restive popluation of slaves, English authorities devised formal "codes" that defined the slaves' legal status and masters' prerogatives. This code denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves and gave their masters virtually complete control over their laborers, including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions.
The ablest of the founders of Georgia who beacem interested in prison reform. He was an able military leader who repelled Spanish attacks. He was an imperialist and philantropist, he saved "the Charity Colony" by his energetic leadership and by heavily mrtgaging his own personal fortune.
A great military power that emerged in the Mohawk Valley. 5 Indian nations bound together-the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas. Founded in the later 1500's by two leaders Deganawidah and Hiawatha mainly because the Iroquois struggled for their very survival as a people. They celebrated together and shared a common policy toward outsiders, but remained essentially independant of one another.