Med Term Ch. 10

Created by kvanhercke 

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nervous system

arthr/o

articulation

cerebell/o

cerebellum (little brain)

crain/o

skull

encephal/o

entire brain

esthesi/o

sensation

gangli/o

ganglion (knot)

gli/o

glue

articulation

arthr/o

cerebrum (largest part of brain)

cerebr/o

skull

crain/o

entire brain

encephal/o

sensation

esthesi/o

ganglion (knot)

gangli/o

glue

gli/o

knowing

gnos/o

gnos/o

knowing

sleep

hypn/o
somn/i
somn/o

hypn/o
somn/i
somn/o

sleep

movement

kinesi/o

kinesi/o

movement

word or phrase

lex/o

lex/o

word or phrase

mening/o
meningi/o

meninges (membrane)

meninges (membrane)

mening/o
meningi/o

spinal cord or bone marrow

myel/o

myel/o

spinal cord or bone marrow

narc/o

stupor, sleep

stupor, sleep

narc/o

neur/o

nerve

nerve

neur/o

phas/o

speech

speech

phas/o

exaggerated fear or sensitivity

phob/o

phob/o

exaggerated fear or sensitivity

phor/o

carry or bear

carry or bear

phor/o

mind

phren/o
psych/o
thym/o

phren/o
psych/o
thym/o

mind

split

schiz/o

schiz/o

split

somat/o

body

body

somat/o

spin/o

spine (thorn)

spine (thorn)

spin/o

vertebra

spondyl/o
vertebr/o

spondyl/o
vertebr/o

vertebra

stere/o

three dimensional or solid

three dimensional or solid

stere/o

tax/o

order or coordination

order or coordination

tax/o

thalamus (a room)

thalam/o

thalam/o

thalamus (a room)

tone or tension

ton/o

ton/o

tone or tension

top/o

place

place

top/o

ventricul/o

ventricle (belly or pouch)

ventricle (belly or pouch)

ventricul/o

cata-

down

down

cata-

-asthenia

weakness

weakness

-asthenia

-lepsy

seizure

seizure

-lepsy

-mania

condition of abnormaly impulse toward

-mania

condition of abnormal impulse toward

-paresis

slight paralysis

slight paralysis

-paresis

-plegia

paralysis

paralysis

-plegia

central nervous system (CNS)

brain and spinal cord

central nervous system

CNS

CNS

central nervous system

brain

portion of the central nervous system contained within the crainum

cerebrum

largest portion of the brain; it is divided into right and left halves known as cerebral hemispheres that are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum

frontal lobe

anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality

parietal lobe

portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch

temporal lobe

portion that lies below the frontal lobe, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell

occipital lobe

protion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision

cerebral cortex

outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter, responaible for higher mental functions

thalamus (diencephalon)

two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex

gyri

ring or circle; convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres

sulci

ditch; shallow grooves in the brain

cerebellum

portions of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles.

brainstem

region of the brain that serves as a relay between teh cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord, responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; there are three levels; mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata

ventricles

series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord

cerebrospinal fluid

CSF

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

spinal cord

column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body

meninges

three membranes that cover the crain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

nerves that branch from the central nervous system, including nerves of the brain (crainal nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)

peripheral nervous system

PNS

PNS

peripheral nervous system

cranial nerves

12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain

spinal nerves

31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord

sensory nerves
afferent nerves

nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain

motor nerves
efferent nerves

nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smoth muscle, cardiac muscle and various glands

autonomic nervous system

ANS

ANS

autonomic nervous system

hypothalamus

control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)

sympathetic nervous system

division of the ANS concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations

parasympathetic nervous system

division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience.

aphasia

condition without speech; important due to loaclized brain injury that affects understanding retrieving, and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language

dysarthria

condition of difficult articulation; group of related speech impariments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength, and timing of motor movements as a result of paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles

dysphasia

difficulty speaking

coma

general tem referring to levels of decreased consciousness with verying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow coma scale.

delirium

state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function - there are many causes, including fever, shock, or drug overdose.

dementia

impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion

motor deficit

loss or impairment of muscle function

sensory deficit

loss or impairment of sensation

hyperesthesia

increases sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain

paresthesia

abnormal sensation of numbness and thingling without objective cause

agnosia

any of many types of loss of nuerological function associated with interpretation of sensory information

astereognosis

inability to judege the form of an object by touch

atopognosis

inability to locate a sensation properly, such as to locate a point touched on the body

alzheimer's disease

disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible seterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

a condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in tal loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms, legs, muscles of speec, swalloing, and breathing to total paralysis and death - also known as Lou Gehrig disease.

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALS

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

cerebral palsy (CP)

condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth, characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination.

cerebral palsy

CP

CP

cerebral palsy

cerebrovascular disease

disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain

cerebral arteriosclerosis

herdening of the arteries of the brain

cerebral atherosclerosis

condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain

cerebral aneurysm

dilation of blood vessel in the brain

cerebral thrombosis

presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain

verebral embolism

obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation

cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke

damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular diseaseq

cerebrocascular accident

CBA

CVA

cerebrovascular accident

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurological deficit (impairment) - often precedes a CVA

transient ischemic attack

TIA

TIA

transient ischemic attact

carotid transient ischemic attack

ischemic of the anterior circulation of the brain

vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attack

ischemia of the posterior circulation of the brain

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

epilepsy

disorder affecting the central nervous system characterized by recurrent seizures

tonic-clonic

stiffness-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups - perviously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure

absence

seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness with out motor involvement - previously termed petite mal (little bad) seizure

partial

seizure involing only limited ares of the brain with localized symptoms

glioma

tumor of glial cells graded by degree of malignancy

herniated disk

protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk, causing compression on the nerve root

herpes zoster

viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spead over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilaterally - also known as shingles

huntington disease (HD)

hereditary disease of the central nervous system

huntington disease

HD

HD

huntington disease

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