Embalming Pathology Unit 6

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Diseases of the Digestive System

Gingivitis

Inflammation of the gums

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx

Esophagitis

Inflammation of the esophagus

Stomatitis

Inflammation of the mouth

Glossitis

Inflammation of the tongue

Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx

Gastritis

Inflammation of the stomach, caused by any substance that irritates it (coffee, spicy foods, smoking, alcohol).

Peptic Ulcer

Ulcer usually of the lower end of the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Due to overproduction of pepsin and gastric acid on mucosa of digestive organs. Gnawing feeling.

Gastric Ulcer

Ulcer of the gastric mucosa created by gastric juices. Most ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori.

Colitis

Inflammation of the colon (large intestine), caused by stress. Long term may lead to colon cancer.

Enteritis

Inflammation of the small intestines

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix; may lead to peritonitis if rupture occurs

Symptoms of Appendicitis

More common among males, 15-25. Severe pain RLQ.

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum (membrane coat lining the abdominal cavity and investing the viscera). Caused by entry of infectious organisms, improper surgical procedures, or rupture of appendix.

Hemorrhoids "Piles"

Varicose veins in the rectal area

Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver

Hepatitis A

Infectious Hepatitis, less serious. Acquired by eating contaminated food or water. Poor sanitation. Responds well to treatment.

Hepatitis B

Serum Hepatitis, chronic and may be fatal. Acquired by being exposed to contaminated blood. Muscle and joint pain, fatigue, clay colored stools.

Cirrhosis

Disease of the liver, hob-nailed appearance. Caused by alcohol abuse, drugs, virus. Results in blockage of veins which drain into liver, back up occurs.

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder; caused by blockages of bile duct. Sore and swollen, N and V. Fever, gradual pain or sudden extreme pain in upper abdomen.

Cholelithiasis

Gallstones; not unusual to form them but can be a problem if the bile duct becomes blocked.

Cholangitis

Inflammation of the bile duct

Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas; severe abdominal pain, chemical suicide.

Diverticulosis

Food particles become impacted in the diverticula, infection leads to diverticulitis

Pyrloric Stenosis

Hypertrophy of the sphincter muscle of the pylorus

Anomalies

Irregularity

Hernia

Protrusion of an organ or part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally holds it

Hiatal Hernia

Stomach protrudes through the diaphragm

Inguinal Hernia

80% of all hernias; protrusion of the hernial sac containing the intestine at the inguinal opening

Carcinoma of the Stomach

Coffee ground purge, poor prognosis, dyspepsia; pain, tenderness, weight loss, vomiting of partially digestedd food

Polyps

Colonic, polyps of the colon, usually benign. May become malignant.

Colon Rectal Cancer

Malignant neoplastic disease of the large intestine. Characterized by change in bowel habits and melena. Tumors begin to appear after age 50. More common in women.

Paralysis

Decrease in peristalsis, preventing movement of intestinal contents

Volvulus

Bowel twists upon itself causing obstruction. Prolapsed mesentery is predisposing cause.

Intussusception

One segment of intestine is pushed into another segment, seen chiefly in children

Infectious Obstruction

Pus from infection can prevent peristalsis, can cause spasms that will not relax.

Abdominal Adhesions

Adhesions of the abdominal cavity, usually involves intestines. Caused by inflammation or trauma.

Proctitis

Inflammation of the rectum and anus. May be acute or chronic with rectal discomfort and repeated urge to poop and inability to pass feces.

Ileitis

Inflammation of the ileum; lumen may narrow and adhesions form. Pain, distension, diarrhea, constipation, vomiting.

Crohn's Disease

Chronic inflammation of the ileum and colon

Cystitis

Inflammation of the bladder, usually secondary to UTI

Anorexia

Females 12-21, loss of appetite

Bulimia

Excessive appetite, self induced vomiting.

Dysentery

Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the colon. Danger of dehydration

Diarrhea

Frequent passage of watery unformed stool. Danger of dehydration.

Constipation

Excessive absorption of water from large intestine causing hard, dry stools. Difficult to pass.

Dysphasia

Difficult swallowing

Dyspepsia

Difficulting digesting

Reflux

Backflow of stomach contents

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