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Type I alveoli

Responsible for gas exchange

Type II alveoli

Produce surfactant which prevents alveoli collapse

Alveolar macrophages

Remove foreign matter from respiratory system

Ventilation

Movement of gases in and out of lungs

Perfusion

Flow of blood through vessels of specific organ

Diffusion

Movement of gases across alveolar capillary membrane from high to low concentration

Parietal pleura

Lies adjacent to chest wall and produces pleural fluid

Visceral pleura

Adheres to surface of lung and absorbs pleural fluid

External respiration

Exchange of gases between inhaled air in alveoli and blood in pulmonary capillaries

Internal respiration

Exchange of gases at cellular level between tissue cells and blood in systemic capillaries

Bronchial

Breath sounds heard over sternum/expiration>inspiration

Bronchovesicular

Breath sounds heard over anterior 1/3 of chest near sternum/inspiration=expiration

Vesicular

Breath sounds heard over majority of lungs/heard on inspiration, inaudible on expiration

Adventitious sounds

Abnormal breath sounds such as crackles, wheezes, or stridor

Kussmaul's

Irregular periods of increase rate and depth of respirations

Biot's

Irregular periods of apnea alternating with short periods of respirations of equal depth

Cheyne-Stokes

Initially slow, shallow respirations that increase in rapidity and depth, then gradually decrease respirations the stops for 10-60 seconds

O2 saturation

Amount of O2 combined with Hgb

Hypocapnia

Decrease in arterial CO2

Bronchoscopy

Scope used to examine bronchi, remove particles, tissue sputum samples

Thorocentesis

Procedure to remove fluid or air from pleural space

Underwater seal

Prevents negative pressure within pleural space from pulling air in/tidaling of water

Drainage chamber

Used for collection of air or fluid by gravity or suction

Suction control chamber

Provides suction controlled to provide negative pressure/gently bubbling

Pleurisy

Painful inflammation of pleura

Pleural effusion

Fluid accumulation which compresses lung tissue

Empyema

Effusions become infectious

Atelectasis

Most common airway obstruction which bronchiole blocked with secretions/alveoli distal collapse

Pulmonary embolism

Blood clot to lungs which occludes pulmonary blood vessel

Greenfield filter

Used to prevent clots from traveling from lower extremities to heart, lungs, and brain

Pulmonary edema

Rapid fluid shift from plasma to interstitial and alveoli causing impaired gas exchange

ARDS

Hypoxemia as a result of major assault on multiple body systems or severe trauma

Asthma

Intermittent airway obstruction in response to stimuli

Chronic bronchitis

Inflammed bronchial tree with excessive mucus leading to chest wall distention, and increased infections

Emphysema

Condition where airways become fibrotic, lose elasticity, and result in narrow lumen leading to barrel chest, hypercapnia, and hypoxia

Bronchiectasis

Chronically dilated bronchi caused by pulmonary TB, chronic URI, or childhood infections due to cystic fibrosis

Pneumothorax

Integrity of pleura interrupted where air or gas accumulates in pleural space

Closed pneumothorax

No communication between external environment and pleural space such as with broken rib

Open pneumothorax

Direct communication between external environment and pleural space such as with gun shot or knife

Tension pneumothorax

Air enters pleural space on inspriation but unable to exit on expiration caused by mechanical ventilation or central lines

Hemothorax

Serosanginous fluid in pleural space

Epistaxis

Hemorrhage of nares or nostrils

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