CIS Midterm

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The Term digital technology refers to the manipulation and storage of information in the form of

Zeroes and ones

Another name for data is

input

a supercomputer is an example of a ______ computer

server

another name for zeroes and ones is

binary digits (bits)

a billion characters is equal to one ______ of storage

gigabyte

A process called ______ is used to digitize sound, such as music.

Sampling

The binary system used to digitally represent keyboard characters is:

ASCII

An ATM machine is an example of a(n):

special-purpose computer

The process of keeping everything up to date across all your computing platforms is called:

synchronization

What is computer literacy?

a functional understanding of the fundamentals of computers and their uses.

What is digital literacy?

an understanding of how computers represent different types of data with digits.

What is the process of transforming information, such as text, images, and sounds, into digital representation (1s and 0s) so that it can be stored and processed by computers?

digitization

that process of combining the functionality of several digital electronics devices into one:

digital convergence

a computing platform:

describes a computer's architecture in terms of hardware and software

The hexadecimal system:

has base 16 for colors

A powerful computer that often utilizes many processors to provide services to many users simultaneously over a network:

server

The most powerful type of computer, often utilizing thousands or even tens of thousands of processors to solve the world's most difficult problems:

supercomputer

Carries out the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs:

processing

A transistor is:

an electronics component typically composed of silicon that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

Connects tiny transistors and other electronics components on a thin piece of semiconductive material such as silicon, launched a technological revolution by making it possible to mass-produce thousands of transistors in one wafer-thin package:

Integrated circuit/ processor

A group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Moore's Law states that:

that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years.

parallel processing refers to:

systems that divide processing equally among multiple CPUs.

Massive parallel processing:

utilize hundreds or thousands of CPUs working together to serve either many users or a few users processing large data sets.

The primary circuit of a computer to which all core components are connected including the CPU is called the:

Motherboard

The bus is a:

Subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components.

The machine cycle is used as an:

Orderly method of processing software instructions.

RAM is:

Temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.

ROM:

Provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, programs and data from the computer manufacturer, including the boot process used to start the computer.

An external hard-drive is an example of:

Magnetic storage

CD's and DVD' s are examples of:

optical storage

A thumb drive is an example of:

solid state storage

To avoid date entry errors, many systems rely on:

source data automation

What is not considered to be both an input and output device:

Speakers

The most popular general purpose input devices are:

keyboards

The kind of display used by Apple's iphone and ipad is an example of:

multi-touch display

______ is used almost exclusively by the banking industry:

MICR

A game controller is a type of:

special purpose input device

A self-checkout machine at Home Depot or the grocery store is a type of:

POS terminal

Expanding through the capacity of a computer to interface with a variety of peripherals can be done by connecting through a:

USB port

One component of high-end video cards today is a:

GPU

The quality of a display unit is measured in terms of its:

pixels

A utility program, such as a screen saver, is a type of:

systems software

When you use a remote business desktop (RBUS) from home, your computer becomes a ____ of the FCB network.

client

Is system software is installed on a smart phone, it is considered to be:

embedded

Another name for starting your computer is:

booting

Requiring users to enter a username and password is part of which OS function?

Administering Security

When computer users engage in file management, the OS lets them:

Copy, delete, rename, or move files and folders.

When the computer is on, where does the operating system exist?

In both RAM (primary storage) and secondary storage

Two or more processors running at the same time is called:

Multiprocessing

The type of utility program that tells the OS how peripheral devices are to communicate with them is called a:

Device driver

When the OS is busy swapping items between memory and storage and can't execute programs, it is said to be:

Thrashing

The process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming languages.

computer programming

an application programming interface:

is a set of programming tools provided to access an operating system or online service in order to create software based on that operating system or online service.

The three main components of AI systems are:

-A set of logical rules to apply to input to produce useful output
-Instructions for how to handle unexpected input and still produce useful output - i.e., the ability to "wing it"
-The ability to learn from experience, referred to as machine learning

Conventional AI uses programming that:

emphasizes statistical analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution.

An expert system (ES):

is a form of conventional AI that is programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field or area.

A branch of AI that uses methodologies such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation to enable computers to learn from experience in an iterative (cyclical) process.

Computational Intelligence

the point in time at which computers exceed humans in intelligence:

singularity

Robotics involves:

developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision, or are tedious or hazardous for humans.

What enables software to react to visual input?

Computer vision

What consists of programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program.

An intelligent agent (Bot)

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