AP Chemistry Chapter 1

30 terms by APMother

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Zumdah; Sixth Edition

Scientific method

the process of studying natural phenomena, involving observations, forming laws and theories, and testing of theories by experimentation

measurement

a quantitative description that includes both a number and a unit

hypothesis

a proposed explanation for an observation

theory

a set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon

model

theory

natural law

a statement that expresses generally observed behaviour

law of conservation of mass

mass is neither created or destroyed

SI system

International System of units based on the metric system and units derived from the metric system

mass

the quantity of matter in an object

weight

the force exerted on an object by gravity

uncertainty

the characteristic that any measurement involves estimates and cannot be exactly reproduced

significant figures

the certain digits and the first uncertain digit of a measurement

accuracy

the agreement of a particular value with the true value

precision

the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility

random error

an error that has an equal probability of being high or low

systematic error

an error that always occurs in the same direction

matter

the material of the universe

states of matter

the three different states of matter - solid, liquid, gas

homogeneous solution

an equilibrium system where all reactants and products are in the same phase

heterogeneous solution

an equilibrium involving reactants and/or products in more than one phase

solution

a homogeneous mixture

pure substance

a substance with constant composition

physical change

a change in the form of the substance, but not in its chemical composition: chemical bonds are not broken

distillation

a method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components

filtration

a method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid

chromatography

the general name for a series of methods for separating mixtures by employing a system with a mobile phase and a stationary phase

paper chromatography

Employs a strip of porous paper such as filter paper as the stationary phase

compound

a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes

chemical change

the change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of atoms

element

a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means

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