a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas: for attaining a high standard.
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
Assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above.
Assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are intrinsically motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.