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J. Edgar Hoover

was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. He founded the present form of the agency, and remained director for 48 years until his death. During his life, Hoover was highly regarded by much of the U.S. public. Hoover's leadership spanned eight presidential administrations, encompassed Prohibition, the Great Depression, World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, and the Vietnam War. During this time, the United States moved from being a rural nation with strong isolationist tendencies to an urbanized superpower.

Richard M. Nixon

Eisenhower's VP then elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine also. He was involved in Détente, which was a way to create peaceful relations between the United States and the communist countries of Moscow and Beijing. One of the most distinct factors relating to Nixon was that he was the first President to ever resign due to the Watergate scandal. He resigned on August 8, 1974.He was the Repubican President of the United States during the Vietnam War (1969-1974). He made many improvements for the environment, and he took the United States off the gold standard. As a result of the Watergate Scandal, Nixon was forced to resign. Many other problems hurt his term such as the energy crisis, but mainly Watergate. He removed US troops from Vietnam in 1973 with his Vietnamization policy.

Whittaker Chambers

TIME magazine editor and former communist. Confessed to spying for the Soviet Union during the 1930's. Named fellow spies, some of them in Roosevelt's cabinet., was an American writer and editor. After being a Communist Party USA member and Soviet spy, he later renounced communism and became an outspoken opponent later testifying in the perjury and espionage trial of Alger Hiss

Alger Hiss

was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950. The case was prosecuted by Nixon. , was a State Department official accused of spying for the Soviets. The issues he caused reflected the opinions of the Cold War. War Hawks believed that he and communists were infiltrating the country while Peace Doves believed that his conviction was an act against a loyal servant.

Joseph McCarthy

United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957), 1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists, a Republican United States senator from Wisconsin, was one of the most controversial figures in American politics. He gained worldwide attention in the early 1950's by charging that Communists had infiltrated the government. McCarthy conducted several public investigations of Communist influence on U.S. foreign policy. Some people praised him as a patriot, but others condemned him for publicly accusing people of disloyalty without sufficient evidence. He did not succeed in identifying any Communists employed by the government. His widely scattered charges gave rise to a new word, McCarthyism.

Gerald Nye

Republican of North Dakota, headed a 1934-1936 Senate investigation, which concluded that banking and munition interests, whom it called "merchants of death", had tricked the US into war to protect their loans and weapon sales to England and France, In 1934, North Dakota this senator headed a Senate investigation into banking and the munitions industries. He concluded that they had conspired to drag the United States into World War I for their own profit. He labeled munitions manufacturers "merchants of death." His committee's report fed the isolationist mood of Americans in the mid-1930s. Led the Nye Committee

Chester Nimitz

United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966), Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them., A high-grade naval strategist who fought in the Battle of Midway under Admiral Raymond A. Spruance. All of the fighting was done by aircraft and victory ensued. He successfully took Japanese island strongholds in the Pacific by utilizing naval, air, and ground units.

Cordell Hull

The Secretary of State under FDR who believed that trade was a two-way street, that a nation can sell abroad only as it buys abroad, that tariff barriers choke off foreign trade, and that trade wars beget shooting wars. He was one of the main contributors to the reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers., United States diplomat who did the groundwork for creating the United Nations (1871-1955), Secretary of State during FDR's presidency; believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; also believed in Good Neighborism.

Omar Bradley

1893 - 1981, U.S. General during WWII. On July 25, 1944, he unleashed a massive air and land bombardment against the enemy at St. Lô, providing a gap in the German line of defense through which General George Patton and his army could advance., United States general who played an important role in the Allied victory in World War II

Henry Stimson

Secretary of War during War World II who trained 12 million soldiers and airmen, the purchase and transportation to battlefields of 30 percent of the nation's industrial output and agreed to the building of the atomic bomb and the decision to use it., Secretary of State, decided to only "fire paper bullets" at the Japenese over their invasion of Manchuria. Stimson doctrine proclaimed that the US would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force.

Reuben James

This was the frist US warship sunk, in October of 1941, by German forces. It prompted congress to make changes to the Neutrality ACt of 1939 so that merchant vessels could be armed and could take goods to ports that the president approved

Douglas MacArthur

(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.

George C. Marshall

Marshall rose through the administrative ranks and served as the army's Chief of Staff during World War II, then as U.S. ambassador to China. Beginning in 1948 General Marshall oversaw the implementation of the European Recovery Program, since called The Marshall Plan, an economic policy to help Western Europe recover from the devastation of World War II.

George Patton

Known as "Old Blood and Guts," George S. Patton, Jr. was one of the most colorful generals of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army., U.S. army general who directed the campaign in North Africa, led the Third Army out of Normandy and assisted with the Battle of the Bulge in WW II, Allied Commander of the Third Army. Was instrumental in winning the Battle of the Bulge. Considered one of the best military commanders in American history.

Joseph Stillwell

a United States Army four-star general best-known for his service in China. He was nicknamed "Uncle Joe" and "Vinegar Joe" for his purported concern for the average soldier and forthright manner, U.S. military leader who tells china they need to arm communists to take out the Japanese

Dwight D. Eisenhower

He was the U. S. general who led the attack in North Africa in Nov. of 1942.He was the master organizer of the D-Day invasion in Europe (June 6, 1944). He ran for the Republican ticket in the 1952 and the1956 elections and won. He was very well liked by the public., 34th president of the US. Nicknamed Ike. General in the US army. During WWII, was supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe. Supervised invasion of France and Germany

Wendell Wilkie

The Republican nominee for president in the 1940 election, he was a surprise nominee as he had never before run for public office; He criticized the New deal but largely agreed with Roosevelt on preparedness and giving aid to Britain short of actually entering the war. His strongest criticism of Roosevelt was regarding his decision to break the two term tradition established by George Washington., The Republicans chose Wendell L. Willkie to run against President Roosevelt. Willkie's great appeal lay in his personality. The Republican platform condemned FDR's alleged dictatorship, as well as the New Deal. Willkie was opposed not so much to the New Deal as to its extravagances and inefficiencies.

Strom Thurmond

He was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator. He also ran for the presidency of the United States in 1948 under the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party. This group of "Dixiecrats" broke off from the democrats after Truman's acceptance speech at the 1948 democratic convention in which he asked for an end to segregation, An American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator representing that state. He also ran for the presidency of the United States in 1948 under the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party banner. He garnered 39 electoral votes in that race, making him the first third party presidential candidate to receive electoral votes since Robert LaFollette in 1924. He later represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican.

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